Thulium

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Thulium,  69Tm
Thulium sublimed dendritic and 1cm3 cube.jpg
General properties
Name, seembol thulium, Tm
Appearance silvery gray
Pronunciation /ˈθjliəm/ THEW-lee-əm
Thulium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Iron (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Copper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Siller (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercur (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Lead (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)
-

Tm

Md
erbiumthuliumytterbium
Atomic nummer (Z) 69
Group, block group n/a, f-block
Period period 6
Element category   lanthanide
Staundart atomic wicht (±) (Ar) 168.93422(2)
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f13 6s2
per shell
2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 1818 K ​(1545 °C, ​2813 °F)
Boilin pynt 2223 K ​(1950 °C, ​3542 °F)
Density near r.t. 9.32 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 8.56 g/cm3
Heat of fusion 16.84 kJ/mol
Heat o 247 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 27.03 J/(mol·K)
 pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1117 1235 1381 1570 (1821) (2217)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 2, 3, 4 (basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.25
Atomic radius empirical: 176 pm
Covalent radius 190±10 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structur hexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structur for thulium
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (poly)
13.3 µm/(m·K)
Thermal conductivity 16.9 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (poly) 676 n Ω·m
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic at 300 K
Young's modulus 74.0 GPa
Shear modulus 30.5 GPa
Bulk modulus 44.5 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.213
Vickers haurdness 520 MPa
Brinell haurdness 471 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-30-4
History
Discovery Per Teodor Cleve (1879)
First isolation Per Teodor Cleve (1879)
Maist stable isotopes o thulium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
167Tm syn 9.25 d ε 0.748 167Er
168Tm syn 93.1 d ε 1.679 168Er
169Tm 100% - (α) 1.2004 165Ho
170Tm syn 128.6 d β 0.968 170Yb
171Tm syn 1.92 y β 0.096 171Yb
Decay modes in parentheses are predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
· references

Thulium is a chemical element that haes the seembol Tm an atomic nummer 69. It is the thirteent an antepenultimate element in the lanthanide series. Lik the ither lanthanides, the maist common oxidation state is +3, seen in its oxide, halides an ither compoonds. In aqueous solution, lik compoonds o ither late lanthanides, soluble thulium compoonds furm complexes wi nine watter molecules.

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