Thulium

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Thulium,  69Tm
Thulium sublimed dendritic and 1cm3 cube.jpg
General properties
Appearance silvery gray
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart) 168.93422(2)
Thulium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
-

Tm

Md
erbiumthuliumytterbium
Atomic nummer (Z) 69
Group group n/a
Period period 6
Element category   lanthanide
Block f-block
Electron confeeguration [Xe] 4f13 6s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP) solit
Meltin pynt 1818 K ​(1545 °C, ​2813 °F)
Bylin pynt 2223 K ​(1950 °C, ​3542 °F)
Density (near r.t.) 9.32 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.) 8.56 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 16.84 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 247 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 27.03 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1117 1235 1381 1570 (1821) (2217)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 2, 3, 4 (basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.25
Atomic radius empirical: 176 pm
Covalent radius 190±10 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Miscellanea
Creestal structurhexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed creestal structur for thulium
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (poly)
13.3 µm/(m·K)
Thermal conductivity 16.9 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (poly) 676 n Ω·m
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic at 300 K
Young's modulus 74.0 GPa
Shear modulus 30.5 GPa
Bouk modulus 44.5 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.213
Vickers haurdness 520 MPa
Brinell haurdness 471 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-30-4
History
Diskivery Per Teodor Cleve (1879)
First isolation Per Teodor Cleve (1879)
Main isotopes o thulium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
167Tm syn 9.25 d ε 167Er
168Tm syn 93.1 d ε 168Er
169Tm 100% - (α) 165Ho
170Tm syn 128.6 d β 170Yb
171Tm syn 1.92 y β 171Yb
Decay modes in parentheses are predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
| references | in Wikidata

Thulium is a chemical element that haes the seembol Tm an atomic nummer 69. It is the thirteent an antepenultimate element in the lanthanide series. Lik the ither lanthanides, the maist common oxidation state is +3, seen in its oxide, halides an ither compoonds. In aqueous solution, lik compoonds o ither late lanthanides, soluble thulium compoonds furm complexes wi nine watter molecules.

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