Thorium

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Thorium,  90Th
Smaw (3 cm) ampule wi a teenie (5 mm) square o metal in it
General properties
Appearance sillery, eften wi black tarnish
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart) 232.0377(4)
Thorium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
Ce

Th

(Uqb)
actiniumthoriumprotactinium
Atomic nummer (Z) 90
Group group n/a
Period period 7
Element category   actinide
Block f-block
Electron confeeguration [Rn] 6d2 7s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP) solit
Meltin pynt 2115 K ​(1842 °C, ​3348 °F)
Bylin pynt 5061 K ​(4788 °C, ​8650 °F)
Density (near r.t.) 11.7 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 13.81 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 514 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 26.230 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2633 2907 3248 3683 4259 5055
Atomic properties
Oxidation states

4, 3, 2, 1

(weakly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.3
Atomic radius empirical: 179 pm
Covalent radius 206±6 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Miscellanea
Creestal structur face-centred cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic creestal structur for thorium
Speed o soond thin rod 2490 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 11.0 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 54.0 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 147 n Ω·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic[1]
Young's modulus 79 GPa
Shear modulus 31 GPa
Bouk modulus 54 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.27
Mohs haurdness 3.0
Vickers haurdness 350 MPa
Brinell haurdness 400 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-29-1
History
Diskivery Jöns Jakob Berzelius (1829)
Main isotopes o thorium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
228Th trace 1.9116 y α 224Ra
229Th trace 7340 y α 225Ra
230Th trace 75380 y α 226Ra
231Th trace 25.5 h β 231Pa
232Th 100% 1.405×1010 y α 228Ra
234Th trace 24.1 d β 234Pa
| references | in Wikidata

Thorium is a naiturally occurrin radioactive chemical element wi the seembol Th an atomic nummer 90. It wis discovered in 1828 bi the Norwegian mineralogist Morten Thrane Esmark an identified bi the Swadish chemist Jöns Jakob Berzelius an named efter Thor, the Norse god o thunner.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.