Thirty Years' War

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Thirty Years' War
Pairt o European wars o releegion
The Hanging by Jacques Callot.jpg
Les Grandes Misères de la guerre (The Great Miseries o War) bi Jacques Callot, 1632
Date23 Mey 1618 – 15 Mey 1648
(29 years, 11 months, 3 weeks, an 1 day)
LocationEurope, mainly present-day Germany
Result

Peace o Westphalie

Belligerents

Anti-Habsburg States an Allies:
Swaden Swaden (frae 1630)
Denmark Denmark (1625–1629)
 Unitit Provinces
 Fraunce (from 1635)
Bohemie Bohemie (1618–1620)
 Saxony
The Palatinate (till 1623)
Brandenburg-Prussia
Coat of Arms of Brunswick-Lüneburg.svg Brunswick-Lüneburg
 Ingland (1625–30)[1]
 Scotland (1625–38)[2]
Transylvanie (frae 1619)[3]

Supportit bi:
Ottoman Empire Ottoman Empire

Roushie Tsardom[4]

Habsburg States an Allies:
 Haly Roman Empire

Spain Spaingie Empire
Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg Hungary[5]
 Kinrick o Croatie
Denmark Denmark (1643–1645)[6]

Supportit bi:
Poland

Zaporizhian Cossacks
Commanders an leaders

Swaden Gustavus Adolphus 
Swaden Axel Oxenstierna
Swaden Johan Banér
Swaden Lennart Torstenson
Swaden Gustav Horn
Swaden Carl Gustaf Wrangel
Swaden Charles X Gustav
Swaden Kinrick o Scotland James Spens
Swaden Kinrick o Scotland Alexander Leslie
Swaden Kinrick o Scotland Kinrick o Ingland James 3rd Marquis Hamilton
Kinrick o Fraunce Louis XIII o Fraunce
Kinrick o Fraunce Cardinal Richelieu
Kinrick o Fraunce Marquis de Feuquieres  
Kinrick o Fraunce Henri, Prince o Condé
Kinrick o Fraunce Duke o Gramont
Kinrick o Fraunce Gaspard III de Coligny
Kinrick o Fraunce Louis II de Bourbon
Kinrick o Fraunce Urbain de Maillé-Brézé
Kinrick o Fraunce Vicomte de Turenne
Swaden Kinrick o Fraunce Kinrick o Scotland John Hepburn
Bohemie Frederick V, Elector Palatine
Bohemie Jindřich Matyáš Thurn
Bohemie Christian I o Anhalt-Bernburg
Denmark Christian IV o Denmark
Denmark Kinrick o Scotland Robert Maxwell, 1st Earl o Nithsdale
Electorate o Saxony Bernhard o Saxe-Weimar
Electorate o Saxony Johann Georg I o Saxony
Dutch Republic Maurice o Nassau
Dutch Republic Piet Pieterszoon Hein
Dutch Republic William o Nassau
Dutch Republic Frederik Hendrik o Orange
Dutch Republic Maarten Tromp
Dutch Republic Ernst Casimir
Dutch Republic Hendrik Casimir I
Kinrick o Ingland Kinrick o Scotland Charles I Stuart
Kinrick o Ingland Duke o Buckingham
Kinrick o Ingland Sir Horace Vere
Gabriel Bethlen
Ernst von Mansfeld
Coat of Arms of Brunswick-Lüneburg.svg Christian o Brunswick

Mikhail Borisovich Shein

Holy Roman Empire Ferdinand II
Holy Roman Empire Ferdinand III
Holy Roman Empire Albrecht von Wallenstein
Holy Roman Empire Spain Ottavio Piccolomini
Holy Roman Empire Franz von Mercy  
Holy Roman Empire Johann von Werth
Holy Roman Empire Gottfried Heinrich Graf zu Pappenheim  
Holy Roman Empire Raimondo Montecuccoli
Holy Roman Empire Peter Melander Graf von Holzappel  
Holy Roman Empire Spain Airchduke Leopold Wilhelm o Austrick
Spain Philip III o Spain
Spain Philip IV o Spain
Spain Coont-Duke o Olivares
Spain Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba
Spain Holy Roman Empire Charles de Longueval, Coont o Bucquoy
Spain Ambrosio Spinola
Spain Carlos Coloma
Spain Holy Roman Empire Johann Tserclaes, Coont o Tilly  
Spain Duke o Feria
Spain Francisco de Melo
Spain Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand
Spain Holy Roman Empire Matthias Gallas
Maximilian I o Bavarie
Charles IV, Duke o Lorraine
Sigismund III o Poland

Ivan Sirko
Strenth

149,000 Swades (1632)[10]
135,000 Danes (1625)[11]
77,000 Dutch (1629)[12]
6,000 Transylvanians
[13]

60,000 Ottoman cavalry (as support tae Frederick V, Elector Palatine)
Amang ithers, aboot 20,000 Hungarian an Croatie cavalry[14]
Casualties an losses
8,000,000 includin ceevilian casualties[15]

The Thirty Years' War wis a series o wars in Central Europe atween 1618 an 1648. It wis ane o the langest an maist destructive conflicts in European history.[16] It wis the deadliest European releegious war, resultin in aicht million casualties.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. At war wi Spain 1625–30 (an Fraunce 1627–29): 6000 Inglismen an aa focht unner Charles Morgan in the Dens campaigns. Thir war lairgely drawn frae the Inglis brigade o fower regiments which war based in the Dutch Republic
  2. Scotland declared war an focht against Spain 1625–1630 an Fraunce 1627–1629, maistly conductin the war at sea. In addeetion tae providin 2000 troops for the campaign against Fraunce in 1627, Scots privateers harried French shippin an captured an occupied Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, an Quebec. The Scots Privy Cooncil an aa provided warrants for 13,700 truips for Dens service wha focht unner Scots banner wi a Dannerbrog in the tap left corner. Thir war led ineetially bi the Catholic Robert Maxwell, Earl o Nithsdale an mair famously bi Donald Mackay Laird Reay. In 1630, 8000 mair Britons, maistly Scots led bi James 3rd Marquis Hamilton launditin Germany unner Breetish banner. Thay war expleecitly cawed the "Breetish airmy" an haed been raised on warrants issued bi the Inglis an Scots Privy cooncils for allied service alangside Swaden. Thay jyned an estimatit 12,000 Scots already in Swadish service commandit bi General Sir James Spens, Alexander Leslie, Patrick Ruthven, an John Hepburn. The latter man led a Scots brigade in Fraunce frae 1634–1636, efter which it fell unner the control o the Douglas faimily. Throuoot the entire period o the war, the Scots mainteened a brigade o three regiments in Dutch service. The 1625–1638 period represents the period o greatest engagement, tho Scots war active as allies in the anti-Habsburg alliance throuoot the whole coorse o the war
  3. "intae line wi airmy o Gabriel Bethlen in 1620." Ágnes Várkonyi: Age of the Reforms, Magyar Könyvklub publisher, 1999. ISBN 963-547-070-3
  4. Roushie supportit Swaden against Poland-Lithuanie (Smolensk War)
  5. Ervin Liptai: Military history of Hungary, Zrínyi Military Publisher, 1985. ISBN 9633263379
  6. Denmark focht Swaden an the Dutch Republic in the Torstenson War
  7. The Consequences and Effects of the Thirty Years War
  8. "The later divisions that occurred made Europe more like it is now with the Catholic areas in the south and the Lutherans farther north and more importantly, it took the central power from the Catholic Church."
  9. Helmolt, Hans Ferdinand (1903). The World's History: Western Europe to 1800. W. Heinemann. p. 573. ISBN 0-217-96566-0. 
  10. Swadish Intervention
  11. Dens Militar Intervention
  12. page 54 http://www.pikeandshotsociety.org/documents/article4.pdf "When the dutch army was increased to 77.000 in 1629 during the threatened Spanish invasion..."
  13. Gabriel Bethlen's airmy nummered 5,000 Hungarian pikemen an 1,000 German mercenary, wi the anti-Habsburg Hungarian rebels nummered thegither approx. 35,000 men. László Markó: The Great Honors of the Hungarian State (A Magyar Állam Főméltóságai), Magyar Könyvklub 2000. ISBN 963-547-085-1
  14. László Markó: The Great Honors of the Hungarian State (A Magyar Állam Főméltóságai), Magyar Könyvklub 2000. ISBN 963-547-085-1
  15. Davis, Norman (1996). Europe, a history. Oxford University Press. p. 568. ISBN 978-0-7126-6633-6. 
  16. Peter H. Wilson, Europe's Tragedy: A New History of the Thirty Years War (London: Penguin, 2010), 787