3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||288.43 g·mol−1|
|Transdermal (gel, cream, solution, patch), bi mooth (as testosterone undecanoate), in the cheek, intranasal (gel), intramuscular injection (as esters), subcutaneous pellets|
|Oral: very law (due tae extensive first pass metabolism)|
|97.0–99.5% (to SHBG and albumin)|
|Liver (mainly reduction and conjugation)|
|Urine (90%), feces (6%)|
Except whaur itherwise notit, data are gien for materials in thair staundart state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|whit is ?)(|
Testosterone is the primar male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid. In male humans, testosterone plays a key role in the development o male reproductive tishies sic as testes an prostate, as weel as promotin seicontar sexual chairactereestics sic as increased muscle an bane mass, an the growthe o bouk hair. In addeetion, testosterone is involved in heal an well-bein, an the prevention o osteoporosis. Insufficient levels o testosterone in men mey lead tae abnormalities includin frailty an bane loss.
Testosterone is a steroid frae the androstane cless conteenin a keto an hydroxyl groups at the three an seiventeen poseetions respectively. It is biosynthesised in several steps frae cholesterol an is convertit in the liver tae inactive metabolites. It exerts its action throu bindin to an activation o the androgen receptor. In humans an maist ither vertebrates, testosterone is secretit primarily bi the testicles o males an, tae a lesser extent, the ovaries o females. On average, in adult males, levels o testosterone are aboot 7 tae 8 times as great as in adult females. As the metabolism o testosterone in males is greater, the daily production is aboot 20 times greater in men. Females are an aw mair sensitive tae the hormone.
In addeetion tae its role as a naitural hormone, testosterone is uised as a medication, for instance in the treatment o law testosterone levels in men an breast cancer in weemen. Syne testosterone levels decrease as men age, testosterone is whiles uised in aulder men tae coonteract this deficiency. It is an aw uised illeecitly tae enhance physique an performance, for instance in athletes.
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM (30 November 2015). Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 711–. ISBN 978-0-323-29738-7.
- Mooradian AD, Morley JE, Korenman SG (Feb 1987). "Biological actions of androgens". Endocrine Reviews. 8 (1): 1–28. doi:10.1210/edrv-8-1-1. PMID 3549275.
- Bassil N, Alkaade S, Morley JE (Jun 2009). "The benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy: a review". Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management. 5 (3): 427–48. PMC . PMID 19707253.
- Tuck SP, Francis RM (2009). "Testosterone, bone and osteoporosis". Frontiers of Hormone Research. Frontiers of Hormone Research. 37: 123–32. doi:10.1159/000176049. ISBN 978-3-8055-8622-1. PMID 19011293.
- Luetjens CM, Weinbauer GF (2012). "Chapter 2: Testosterone: Biosynthesis, transport, metabolism and (non-genomic) actions". In Nieschlag E, Behre HM, Nieschlag S. Testosterone: Action, Deficiency, Substitution (4th ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 15–32. ISBN 978-1-107-01290-5.
- Torjesen PA, Sandnes L (Mar 2004). "Serum testosterone in women as measured by an automated immunoassay and a RIA". Clinical Chemistry. 50 (3): 678; author reply 678–9. doi:10.1373/clinchem.2003.027565. PMID 14981046.
- Southren AL, Gordon GG, Tochimoto S, Pinzon G, Lane DR, Stypulkowski W (May 1967). "Mean plasma concentration, metabolic clearance and basal plasma production rates of testosterone in normal young men and women using a constant infusion procedure: effect of time of day and plasma concentration on the metabolic clearance rate of testosterone". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 27 (5): 686–94. doi:10.1210/jcem-27-5-686. PMID 6025472.
- Southren AL, Tochimoto S, Carmody NC, Isurugi K (Nov 1965). "Plasma production rates of testosterone in normal adult men and women and in patients with the syndrome of feminizing testes". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 25 (11): 1441–50. doi:10.1210/jcem-25-11-1441. PMID 5843701.
- Dabbs M, Dabbs JM (2000). Heroes, rogues, and lovers: testosterone and behavior. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-135739-4.
- "Testosterone". Drugs.com. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. December 4, 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2016.