Template:Infobox carbon

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Carbon,  6C
Diamond-and-graphite-with-scale.jpg
Graphite (left) an diamont (right), twa allotropes o caurbon
General properties
Appearance clear (diamond) & black (graphite)
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart) [12.009612.0116] conventional: 12.011
Carbon in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
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C

Si
boroncarbonnitrogen
Atomic nummer (Z) 6
Group group 14 (caurbon group)
Period period 2
Element category   nonmetal
Block p-block
Electron confeeguration [He] 2s2 2p2
Electrons per shell
2, 4
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP) solit
Sublimation pynt 3915 K ​(3642 °C, ​6588 °F)
Density (near r.t.) amorphous:[1] 1.8–2.1 g/cm3
diamond: 3.515 g/cm3
graphite: 2.267 g/cm3
Treeple pynt 4600 K, ​10800[2][3] kPa
Heat o fusion 117 (graphite) kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 6.155 (diamond)
8.517 (graphite) J/(mol·K)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3[4], 2, 1[5], 0, −1, −2, −3, −4[6]
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.55
Ionisation energies
Covalent radius 77(sp³), 73(sp²), 69(sp) pm
Van der Waals radius 170 pm
Coloyr lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines o Infobox carbon
Miscellanea
Creestal structurdiamond cubic
Diamond creestal structur for carbon

(diamond, clear)
Speed o soond thin rod 18350 (diamond) m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 0.8 (diamond)[7] µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 900-2300 (diamond)
119-165 (graphite) W/(m·K)
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic[8]
Young's modulus 1050 (diamond)[7] GPa
Shear modulus 478 (diamond)[7] GPa
Bouk modulus 442 (diamond)[7] GPa
Poisson ratio 0.1 (diamond)[7]
Mohs haurdness 10 (diamond)
1-2 (graphite)
CAS Nummer 7440-44-0
History
Diskivery Egyptians an Sumerians[9] (3750 BC)
Recognized as an element bi Antoine Lavoisier[10] (1789)
Main isotopes o carbon
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
11C syn 20 min β+ 11B
12C 98.9% stable
13C 1.1% stable
14C trace 5730 y β 14N
| references | in Wikidata

References

Thir references will appear in the airticle, but this list appears anerly on this page.
  1. Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5. 
  2. Haaland, D (1976). "Graphite-liquid-vapor triple point pressure and the density of liquid carbon". Carbon. 14 (6): 357. doi:10.1016/0008-6223(76)90010-5. 
  3. Savvatimskiy, A (2005). "Measurements of the melting point of graphite and the properties of liquid carbon (a review for 1963–2003)". Carbon. 43 (6): 1115. doi:10.1016/j.carbon.2004.12.027. 
  4. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the System of CP" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  5. "Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the Electronic Transition of the Jet-Cooled CCI Free Radical" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  6. "Carbon: Binary compounds". Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Properties of diamond, Ioffe Institute Database
  8. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  9. "History of Carbon and Carbon Materials - Center for Applied Energy Research - University of Kentucky". Caer.uky.edu. Retrieved 2008-09-12. 
  10. Senese, Fred (200-09-09). "Who discovered carbon?". Frostburg State University. Retrieved 2007-11-24.  Check date values in: |date= (help)