Talian dialect

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Talian
Taliàn
Native tae Brazil (co-offeecial leid in Serafina Corrêa an Flores da Cunha)
Native speakers
possibly 1 million (2006)[1]
Laitin
Leid codes
ISO 639-3
Glottolog None

Talian (or Brazilian Venetian)[2] is a dialect o the Venetian leid, spoken primarily in the Serra Gaúcha region in the northeast o the state o Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. It is spoken in ither pairts of Rio Grande do Sul an aw, as well as in pairts o Espirito Santo[3][4][5][6][7] an o Santa Catarina.

Despite the similar names, Talian is no derivit frae staundart Italian (actually cried grammatical Italian in Brazil), but is mainly a mix o Venetian dialects influencit bi ither dialects o Northren Italy as well as local Portuguese.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

Italian settlers first began arrivin intae these regions in a wave o immigration lastin frae approximately 1875 tae 1914.[8][9] These settlers wur mainly frae Veneto, a region in Northren Italy, whaur Venetian wis spoken, but frae Trentino an Friuli-Venezia Giulia an aw.[8][9] In the sooth o Brazil these immigrants settled as smawhauders in the region o Encosta da Serra. Thare they creatit three dounsets: Conde D'Eu (nou, Garibaldi, Rio Grande do Sul), Dona Isabel (nou Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul), an Campo dos Bugres (nou Caxias do Sul).[10] As mair fowk arrivit, the Italian dounset expanded ayont these localities.[10] Approximately 100,000 immigrants frae Northren Italy arrivit atween 1875 an 1910. As time went bi, a uniquely soothren Brazilian dialect emergit. Veneto became the basis for Italian-Brazilian regionalism.

Talian wis vera hintle influencit no anerly bi ither Italian leids but bi Portuguese, the naitional leid o Brazil. Housomeivver, acause its grammar an lexicon remain predominantly Venetian, Talian is no considered a creole leid, the preponderance o nan-Venetian loanwirds nowistaundin. It haes been estimatit that thare hae been 130 beuks published in Talian, includin wirks o baith poetry an prose.[11]

Like Riograndenser Hunsrückisch (hunsriqueano riograndense), the main German dialect spoken bi soothren Brazilians o German oreegin, Talian haes suffered great deprecation syne the 1940s. At that time, then-Preses Getúlio Vargas stairtit a campaign o naitionalisation (similar tae the Nacionalismo o neebourin Argentinae) tae tree tae force nan-Portuguese speakers o Brazil tae "better integrate" intae the naitional mainstream cultur. Speakin Talian or German in public, especially in eddication an press, wis forbidden.

Current status[eedit | eedit soorce]

Talian is mainly spoken in the soothren Brazilian states o Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina an Paraná, as well as in Espirito Santo.[3][4][5][6][7] Nouadays, thare are approximately 3 million fowk o Italian ancestry in Rio Grande do Sul, aboot 30% o the local population,[10] an approximately 1.7 million fowk in Espirito Santo, which accoonts for 65% o the local population.[12] Accordin tae some estimates, thare are up tae ane million speakers o Talian the day; Ethnologue reportit 4,000,000 speakers in the year 2006.[1] Durin the "Novo Brasil" period o the govrenment o Getúlio Vargas, the uise o Talian wis declared illegal.[13] As a result o the traumas o Vargas' policies, thare is, even tae this day, a stigma attached tae speakin these leids. However, in 2009, the state of Rio Grande do Sul appruivit a law declarin the Talian leid tae be an integral pairt o the historical heritage o the state.[10] In 2009, the ceety o Serafina Corrêa, in the State o Rio Grande do Sul, electit Talian as co-offeecial leid, alangside Portuguese.[14][15]

Feenally, in 2014 Talian wis declared tae be pairt o cultural heritage o Brazil (Língua e referência cultural brasileira). Accordin tae the figur gien in this occasion, thare wad be aboot 500,000 active speakers in 133 touns.[16]

Newspapers in the Talian-speakin region featur airticles written in the leid. Thare are approximately 500 radio programs broadcast in Talian.[11]

See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Venetian at Ethnologue (16t ed., 2009)
  2. "Lingua portoghese e cultura brasiliana". 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Talian Brasil - Intervista con casal Benjamim Falqueto - Venda Nova del Imigrante - ES". 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "I dessendenti taliani che parla el talian Venda Nova do Imigrante – Espírito Santo – Brasil". 
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Chico Zandonadi, Radialista del talian – Ràdio FMZ, Venda Nova do Imigrante – ES". 
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Dialeto falado por imigrantes italianos é reconhecido como patrimônio nacional". 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Brasil Talian documentado em filme". 
  8. 8.0 8.1 "Approvato il progetto che dichiara il 'Talian' come patrimonio del Rio Grande del Sud - Brasile". Sitoveneto. Retrieved 9 March 2012. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 "ESPIRITO SANTO, LO STATO PIU' VENETO DEL BRASILE". 
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 Losekann, Silvana (June 13, 2009). "Sancionada lei que declara o Talian dialeto integrante do patrimônio do RS". Defender - Defesa Civil do Patrimônio Histórico. Retrieved 9 March 2012. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 Alves, Ozias (2013). Paris: L'Harmattan. ISBN 978-2-343-01576-7 https://books.google.com/books?id=sRPrAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA34&dq=veneto+talian&hl=en&sa=X&ei=RfCgUoCDNIeuqQHb1YCgBw&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=veneto%20talian&f=false.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  12. "Estatísticas ítalo-brasileiras". 
  13. Bolson, Bibiana (2014-11-20). "Dialeto de imigrantes italianos se torna patrimônio brasileiro" (in Portuguese). globo.com. Retrieved 26 October 2015. 
  14. "Vereadores aprovam o talian como língua co-oficial do município" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 21 August 2011. 
  15. "Talian em busca de mais reconhecimento" (in Portuguese). Retrieved 24 August 2011. 
  16. Dialeto de imigrantes italianos se torna patrimônio brasileiro.

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]

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