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Sumer (/ˈsmər/)[note 1] wis ane o the auncient ceevilisations an historical regions in soothren Mesopotamie, modren-day soothren Iraq, during the Chalcolithic an the Early Bronze ages.

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  1. The name is frae Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian 𒆠𒂗𒂠 ki-en-ĝir15, approximately "laund o the ceevilised keengs" or "native laund". ĝir15 means "native, local", in some contexts is "noble"(ĝir NATIVE (7x: Old Babylonian) from The Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary). Literally, "land of the native (local, noble) lords". Stiebing (1994) has "Land of the Lords of Brightness" (William Stiebing, Ancient Near Eastern History and Culture). Postgate (1994) takes en as substituting eme "language", translating "land of the Sumerian heart" (John Nicholas Postgate (1994). Early Mesopotamia: Society and Economy at the Dawn of History. Routledge (UK). . Postgate believes it likely that eme, 'tongue', became en, 'lord', through consonantal assimilation.)

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Coordinates: 32°00′N 45°30′E / 32.0°N 45.5°E / 32.0; 45.5