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Sulfur,  16S
Sulfur Spectrum.jpg
Spectral lines o sulfur
General properties
Name, seembol sulfur, S
Appearance lemon yellae sintered microcrystals
Pronunciation /ˈsʌlfər/ SUL-fər
Sulfur in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Iron (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Copper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Siller (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercur (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Lead (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)


Atomic nummer (Z) 16
Group, block group 16 (chalcogens), p-block
Period period 3
Element category   polyatomic nonmetal
Staundart atomic wicht (±) (Ar) 32.066(1)
Electron configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p4
per shell
2, 8, 6
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 388.36 K ​(115.21 °C, ​239.38 °F)
Boilin pynt 717.8 K ​(444.6 °C, ​832.3 °F)
Density near r.t. (alpha) 2.07 g/cm3
(beta) 1.96 g/cm3
(gamma) 1.92 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 1.819 g/cm3
Creetical pynt 1314 K, 20.7 MPa
Heat of fusion (mono) 1.727 kJ/mol
Heat o (mono) 45 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 22.75 J/(mol·K)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 375 408 449 508 591 717
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2 ​strangly acidic oxide
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.58
Covalent radius 105±3 pm
Van der Waals radius 180 pm
Crystal structur orthorhombic
Orthorhombic crystal structur for sulfur
Thermal conductivity (amorphous)
0.205 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity (amorphous)
2×1015  Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic[1]
Bulk modulus 7.7 GPa
Mohs haurdness 2.0
CAS Nummer 7704-34-9
Discovery Cheenese[2] (Before 2000BC)
Recognized as an element bi Antoine Lavoisier (1777)
Maist stable isotopes o sulfur
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
32S 95.02% 32S is stable wi 16 neutrons
33S 0.75% 33S is stable wi 17 neutrons
34S 4.21% 34S is stable wi 18 neutrons
35S syn 87.32 d β 0.167 35Cl
36S 0.02% 36S is stable wi 20 neutrons
· references

Sulphur or sulfur (Breetish Inglis; see spellin ablo) is a chemical element wi seembol S an atomic nummer 16. It is an abundant, multivalent non-metal. Unner normal conditions, sulphur atoms furm cyclic octatomic molecules wi chemical formula S8. Elemental sulphur is a bricht yellae crystalline solid when at ruim temperatur. Chemically, sulfur can react as either an oxidant or reducin agent. It oxidizes maist metals an several nonmetals, includin carbon, which leads tae its negative charge in maist organosulfur compounds, but it reduces several strang oxidants, such as oxygen an fluorine.

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