Sulfur

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Sulfur,  16S
Sulfur-sample.jpg
General properties
Appearancelemon yellae sintered microcrystals
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart)[32.05932.076] conventional: 32.06
Sulfur in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
O

S

Se
phosphorussulfurchlorine
Atomic nummer (Z)16
Groupgroup 16 (chalcogens)
Periodperiod 3
Element category  polyatomic nonmetal
Blockp-block
Electron confeeguration[Ne] 3s2 3p4
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 6
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP)solit
Meltin pynt388.36 K ​(115.21 °C, ​239.38 °F)
Bylin pynt717.8 K ​(444.6 °C, ​832.3 °F)
Density (near r.t.)(alpha) 2.07 g/cm3
(beta) 1.96 g/cm3
(gamma) 1.92 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)1.819 g/cm3
Creetical pynt1314 K, 20.7 MPa
Heat o fusion(mono) 1.727 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation(mono) 45 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity22.75 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 375 408 449 508 591 717
Atomic properties
Oxidation states6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2 ​strangly acidic oxide
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.58
Ionisation energies
Covalent radius105±3 pm
Van der Waals radius180 pm
Coloyr lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines o Sulfur
Miscellanea
Creestal structurorthorhombic
Orthorhombic creestal structur for sulfur
Thermal conductivity(amorphous)
0.205 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity(amorphous)
2×1015  Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderindiamagnetic[1]
Bouk modulus7.7 GPa
Mohs haurdness2.0
CAS Nummer7704-34-9
History
DiskiveryCheenese[2] (Before 2000BC)
Recognized as an element biAntoine Lavoisier (1777)
Main isotopes o sulfur
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
32S 95.02% stable
33S 0.75% stable
34S 4.21% stable
35S syn 87.32 d β 35Cl
36S 0.02% stable
| references | in Wikidata

Sulfur is a chemical element wi seembol S an atomic nummer 16. It is an abundant, multivalent non-metal. Unner normal conditions, sulphur atoms furm cyclic octatomic molecules wi chemical formula S8. Elemental sulphur is a bricht yellae crystalline solit when at ruim temperatur. Chemically, sulfur can react as aither an oxidant or reducin agent. It oxidizes maist metals an several nonmetals, includin carbon, which leads tae its negative charge in maist organosulfur compounds, but it reduces several strang oxidants, sic as oxygen an fluorine.

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