Soviet–Afghan War

Frae Wikipedia
Lowp tae: navigation, rake
Soviet–Afghan War
Part of the Wars in Afghanistan an the Cauld War
Mortar attack on Shigal Tarna garrison, Kunar Province, 87.jpg
Mujahideen fichters in the Kunar Province o Afghanistan in 1987
Date December 24, 1979 – Februar 15, 1989
(9 years, 1 month, 3 weeks and 1 day)
Location Afghanistan
Result
Belligerents

Sunni Mujahideen:


Shia Mujahedeen:

Supportit bi:


Maoist factions:

Commanders and leaders

Mulavi Dawood Executed (AMFFF)
Strength

Soviet forces:

Afghan forces:

Mujahideen:

200,000–250,000[18][19][20]
Casualties and losses
Soviet forces:
Afghan forces:
Mujahideen:
  • 75,000–90,000 killed
  • 75,000+ woondit (tentative estimate)[24]
Pakistan:
  • 300+ killed
  • 1 F-16 fichter jet shot doun[25]
Iran:
  • 2 AH-1J helicopters shot doun
  • Unkent nummer killed[26]
Ceevilians (Afghan):

The Soviet–Afghan War lasted ower nine years frae December 1979 tae Februar 1989.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 Goodson, P. L. Afghanistan's Endless War: State Failure, Regional Politics, and the Rise of ... pp. 147, 165. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Afghanistan War – 2001–2014". 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Afghan War – 1978–1992". 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Interview with Dr. Zbigniew Brzezinski-(13/6/97).". Archived frae the original on 2000-08-29. Retrieved October 2, 2014. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Cornwell, Rupert (Februar 13, 2010). "Charlie Wilson: Congressman whose support for the mujahideen helped force the Soviet Union out of Afghanistan". The Independent. London. Retrieved October 2, 2014. 
  6. Barlett, Donald L.; Steele, James B. (Mey 13, 2003). "The Oily Americans". Time. Retrieved 2008-07-08. 
  7. ""Reagan Doctrine, 1985," United States State Department". State.gov. Archived frae the original on 2007-05-10. Retrieved 2011-02-20. 
  8. Crile, George (2003). Charlie Wilson's War: The Extraordinary Story of the Largest Covert Operation in History. Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 0-87113-854-9. 
  9. "Saudi Arabia and the Future of Afghanistan". Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved October 2, 2014. 
  10. Shichor. pp157–158. Retrieved October 2, 2014. 
  11. Renz, Michael (October 6, 2012). "Operation Sommerregen" (in German) (40). Die Welt. Die Welt. Retrieved 6 Juin 2015. 
  12. Interview with Dr. Zbigniew Brzezinski – (June 13, 1997). Part 2. Episode 17. Good Guys, Bad Guys. June 13, 1997.
  13. Corera, Gordon (2011). MI6: Life and Death in the British Secret Service. London: Phoenix. ISBN 978-0-7538-2833-5. 
  14. Borer, Douglas A. (1999). Superpowers defeated: Vietnam and Afghanistan compared. London: Cass. p. 216. ISBN 0-7146-4851-5. 
  15. Krivosheev, p. 365
  16. Nyrop, Richard F.; Donald M. Seekins (Januar 1986). Afghanistan: A Country Study (PDF). Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office. pp. XVIII–XXV. Archived frae the original (PDF) on November 3, 2001. 
  17. Mark N. Katz (Mairch 9, 2011). "Middle East Policy Council | Lessons of the Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan". Mepc.org. Retrieved Julie 28, 2011. 
  18. Maxime Rischard. "Al Qa'ida's American Connection". Global-Politics.co.uk. Archived frae the original on 2011-11-21. Retrieved Julie 28, 2011. 
  19. "Soviet or the USA the strongest" (in Norse). Translate.google.no. Retrieved Julie 28, 2011. 
  20. "Afghanistan hits Soviet milestone – Army News". Armytimes.com. Retrieved Februar 15, 2012. [deid airtin]
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 The Soviet-Afghan War: Breaking the Hammer & Sickle by Lester W. Grau and Ali Ahmad Jalali| vfw.org
  22. "Russian soldier missing in Afghanistan for 33 years is FOUND living as nomadic sheikh in remote Afghan province". Dailymail. Mairch 5, 2013. Retrieved 21 September 2015. 
  23. David C. Isby (1986-06-15). Russia's War in Afghanistan. Books.google.es. ISBN 978-0-85045-691-2. Retrieved Februar 15, 2012. 
  24. Antonio Giustozzi (2000). War, politics and society in Afghanistan, 1978–1992. Hurst. ISBN 1-85065-396-8. A tentative estimate for total mujahideen losses in 1980-02 may be in the 150–180,000 range, with maybe half of them killed. 
  25. Markovskiy, Victor (1997). "Жаркое небо Афганистана: Часть IX" [Hot Sky of Afghanistan: Part IX]. Авиация и время [Aviation and Time] (in Russian) p.28
  26. "Soviet Air-to-Air Victories of the Cold War". Retrieved October 2, 2014. 
  27. Noor Ahmad Khalidi, "Afghanistan: Demographic Consequences of War: 1978–87," Central Asian Survey, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 101–126, 1991.
  28. Marek Sliwinski, "Afghanistan: The Decimation of a People," Orbis (Winter, 1989), p.39.
  29. Hilali, A. (2005). US–Pakistan relationship: Soviet Intervention in Afghanistan. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Co. (p.198)