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Scandium,  21Sc
Scandium sublimed dendritic and 1cm3 cube.jpg
General properties
Name, seembol scandium, Sc
Appearance silvery white
Pronunciation /ˈskændiəm/ SKAN-dee-əm
Scandium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Airn (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Capper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Siller (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercur (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Leid (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)


Atomic nummer (Z) 21
Group, block group 3, d-block
Period period 4
Element category   transeetion metal
Staundart atomic wicht (±) (Ar) 44.955912(6)
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d1 4s2
per shell
2, 8, 9, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 1814 K ​(1541 °C, ​2806 °F)
Bylin pynt 3109 K ​(2836 °C, ​5136 °F)
Density near r.t. 2.985 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 2.80 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 14.1 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 332.7 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 25.52 J/(mol·K)
vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1645 1804 (2006) (2266) (2613) (3101)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 3, 2[1], 1[2] ​amphoteric oxide
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.36
Ionisation energies
Atomic radius empirical: 162 pm
Covalent radius 170±7 pm
Van der Waals radius 211 pm
Creestal structur hexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structur for scandium
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (α, poly)
10.2 µm/(m·K)
Thermal conductivity 15.8 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (α, poly)
calc. 562 n Ω·m
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic
Young's modulus 74.4 GPa
Shear modulus 29.1 GPa
Bouk modulus 56.6 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.279
Brinell haurdness 750 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-20-2
Prediction Dmitri Mendeleev (1871)
Diskivery Lars Fredrik Nilson (1879)
First isolation Lars Fredrik Nilson (1879)
Maist stable isotopes o scandium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
44m2Sc syn 58.61 h IT 0.2709 44Sc
γ 1.0, 1.1, 1.1 44Sc
ε - 44Ca
45Sc 100% 45Sc is stable wi 24 neutrons
46Sc syn 83.79 d β 0.3569 46Ti
γ 0.889, 1.120 -
47Sc syn 3.3492 d β 0.44, 0.60 47Ti
γ 0.159 -
48Sc syn 43.67 h β 0.661 48Ti
γ 0.9, 1.3, 1.0 -
· references

Scandium is a chemical element wi seembol Sc an atomic nummer 21. A sillery-white metallic transeetion metal, it haes historically been whiles clessifee'd as a rare yird element, thegither wi yttrium an the lanthanoids. It wis discovered in 1879 bi spectral analysis o the minerals euxenite an gadolinite frae Scandinavie.

Scandium is present in maist o the deposits o rare yird an uranium compoonds, but it is extractit frae thir ores in anly a few mines warldwide. Acause o the law availability an the difficulties in the preparation o metallic scandium, which wis first done in 1937, it teuk till the 1970s afore applications for scandium wur developed. The positive effects o scandium on aluminium alloys wur discovered in the 1970s, an its uise in sic alloys remains its anly major application. The global trade o the pure metal is aroond a hunder poonds a year on average.[3]

The properties o scandium compoonds are intermediate atween those o aluminium an yttrium. A diagonal relationship exists atween the behaviour o magnesium an scandium, juist as thare is atween beryllium an aluminium. In the chemical compoonds o the elements shawn as group 3, abuin, the predominant oxidation state is +3.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. McGuire, Joseph C.; Kempter, Charles P. (1960). "Preparation and Properties of Scandium Dihydride". Journal of Chemical Physics. 33: 1584–1585. Bibcode:1960JChPh..33.1584M. doi:10.1063/1.1731452. 
  2. Smith, R. E. (1973). "Diatomic Hydride and Deuteride Spectra of the Second Row Transition Metals". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. 332 (1588): 113–127. Bibcode:1973RSPSA.332..113S. doi:10.1098/rspa.1973.0015. 
  3. Gray, Theodore (2012) The Elements, Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, p. 57, ISBN 1579128955.

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