Scandium

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Scandium,  21Sc
Scandium sublimed dendritic and 1cm3 cube.jpg
General properties
Appearance silvery white
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart) 44.955908(5)
Scandium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
-

Sc

Y
calciumscandiumtitanium
Atomic nummer (Z) 21
Group group 3
Period period 4
Element category   transition metal
Block d-block
Electron confeeguration [Ar] 3d1 4s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 9, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP) solit
Meltin pynt 1814 K ​(1541 °C, ​2806 °F)
Bylin pynt 3109 K ​(2836 °C, ​5136 °F)
Density (near r.t.) 2.985 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.) 2.80 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 14.1 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 332.7 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 25.52 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1645 1804 (2006) (2266) (2613) (3101)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 3, 2[1], 1[2] ​amphoteric oxide
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.36
Ionisation energies
Atomic radius empirical: 162 pm
Covalent radius 170±7 pm
Van der Waals radius 211 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Miscellanea
Creestal structurhexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed creestal structur for scandium
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (α, poly)
10.2 µm/(m·K)
Thermal conductivity 15.8 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (α, poly)
calc. 562 n Ω·m
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic
Young's modulus 74.4 GPa
Shear modulus 29.1 GPa
Bouk modulus 56.6 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.279
Brinell haurdness 750 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-20-2
History
Predeection Dmitri Mendeleev (1871)
Diskivery Lars Fredrik Nilson (1879)
First isolation Lars Fredrik Nilson (1879)
Main isotopes o scandium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct 44m2Sc syn 58.61 h IT 44Sc
γ 44Sc
ε 44Ca
45Sc 100% stable
46Sc syn 83.79 d β 46Ti
γ -
47Sc syn 3.3492 d β 47Ti
γ -
48Sc syn 43.67 h β 48Ti
γ -
| references | in Wikidata

Scandium is a chemical element wi seembol Sc an atomic nummer 21. A sillery-white metallic transeetion metal, it haes historically been whiles clessifee'd as a rare yird element, thegither wi yttrium an the lanthanoids. It wis discovered in 1879 bi spectral analysis o the minerals euxenite an gadolinite frae Scandinavie.

Scandium is present in maist o the deposits o rare yird an uranium compoonds, but it is extractit frae thir ores in anly a few mines warldwide. Acause o the law availability an the difficulties in the preparation o metallic scandium, which wis first done in 1937, it teuk till the 1970s afore applications for scandium wur developed. The positive effects o scandium on aluminium alloys wur discovered in the 1970s, an its uise in sic alloys remains its anly major application. The global tred o the pure metal is aroond a hunder poonds a year on average.[3]

The properties o scandium compoonds are intermediate atween those o aluminium an yttrium. A diagonal relationship exists atween the behaviour o magnesium an scandium, juist as thare is atween beryllium an aluminium. In the chemical compoonds o the elements shawn as group 3, abuin, the predominant oxidation state is +3.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. McGuire, Joseph C.; Kempter, Charles P. (1960). "Preparation and Properties of Scandium Dihydride". Journal of Chemical Physics. 33: 1584–1585. Bibcode:1960JChPh..33.1584M. doi:10.1063/1.1731452. 
  2. Smith, R. E. (1973). "Diatomic Hydride and Deuteride Spectra of the Second Row Transition Metals". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. 332 (1588): 113–127. Bibcode:1973RSPSA.332..113S. doi:10.1098/rspa.1973.0015. 
  3. Gray, Theodore (2012) The Elements, Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, p. 57, ISBN 1579128955.

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