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Rowing is a sport in which athletes race against each ither oan rivers, oan lochs ur oan th' brine, dependin' upon th' teep ay race an' th' discipline. th' boats ur propelled bi th' reaction forces oan th' oar blades as thay ur pushed against th' watter. th' sport can be baith recreational, focusin' oan learnin' th' techniques required,"speed rower, competitife rowin'". Retrieved 2009-02-05.  an' competitife whaur overaa fitness plays a lairge role. it is an aa a body ay th' auldest olympic sports. in th' united states, heich skale an' collegiate rowing is whiles referred tae as crew.[1][2] an competitive whaur oweraw fitness plays a lairge role. It is an aa ane o the auldest Olympic sports. In the United States, heich schuil an collegiate rowing is whiles referred tae as crew."Crew - definition". TheFreeDictionary. Retrieved 2007-01-02.  ">

Basic Information[eedit | eedit soorce]

while rowin', th' athlete sits in th' boat facin' backwards (towards th' stern), an' uses th' oars which ur held in place bi th' oarlocks tae propel th' boat forward (towards th' bow). thes main be dain oan a river, loch, brine, ur ither lairge body ay watter. it is a demandin' sport requirin' strang cair balance an aw as physical loch an' cardiovascular endurance."introduction" Check |url= value (help) (PDF). basic rowin' physiology. Retrieved 2007-01-02.  whilst th' action ay rowin' an' equipment uised remains fairly consistent throoghit th' warld, thaur ur mony different types ay competeetion. thir include endurance races, time trials, stake racin', bumps racing, an' th' side-bi-side format uised in th' olympic games. th' mony different formats ur a result ay th' lang history ay th' sport, its development in different regions ay th' warld, an' specific local requirements an' restrictions. thaur ur tois forms ay rowing: * in sweep ur sweep-oar rowin', each rower haes a body oar, held wi' baith hans. thes can be dain in pairs, foors an' eights. each rower in a sweep boat is referred tae aither as port ur starboard, dependin' oan which side ay th' boat th' rower's oar extends tae. uisually th' port side is referred tae as stroke side, an' th' starboard side as baw side; thes applies e'en if th' stroke oarsman is rowin' oan baw side an/ur th' baw oarsman oan stroke side. * in sculling each rower haes tois oars (ur sculls), a body in each hain. scullin' is uisually dain withit a coxswain, in quads, doobles ur singles. th' oar in th' sculler's reit hain extends tae port (stroke side), an' th' oar in th' left hain extends tae starboard (baw side).

anatomy ay a stroke[eedit | eedit soorce]

the tois fundamental reference pynts in th' rowin' stroke ur th' catch, immediately priur tae th' oar blade's placement in th' watter, an' th' extraction (an aa knoon as th' finish ur th' release) whaur th' rower removes th' oar blade frae th' watter. frae th' catch, th' rower places th' blade in th' watter, 'en applies pressure tae th' oar bi simultaneoosly pushin' th' seat toward th' baw ay th' boat bi extendin' th' legs. as th' legs approach foo extension, th' rower rotates his ur 'er torso toward th' baw ay th' boat an' 'en finally pulls th' arms towards his ur 'er chest. th' shoolders shoods nae hunch up at onie pynt durin' th' drife. at th' huir uv a end ay th' stroke, wi' th' blade still in th' watter, th' hans drap slichtly tae unload th' oar sae 'at sprin' energy stored in th' bend ay th' oar gits transferred tae th' boat, which eases removin' th' oar frae th' watter an' minimizes energy wasted oan liftin' watter abune th' surface (splashing). th' aforementioned stages ay th' stroke whaur pressure is applee'd tae th' blade ben th' watter comprise th' drife ay th' stroke. the recovery phase follows th' drife. th' recovery involves removin' th' oar frae th' watter, an' coordinatin' th' body movement tae muive th' oar tae th' catch. th' coordinated body motion 'at begins at th' finish consists ay th' follaein: th' rower pushes doon oan th' oar handle (ur oar handles if th' rower is sculling) tae quickly lift th' blade frae th' watter at th' release. followin' th' release, th' rower rapidly rotates th' oar tae cause th' blade ay th' oar tae acome parallel tae th' watter (a process referred tae as "feaitherin' th' blade") at th' sam time as pushin' th' oar handle awa' frae th' chest. efter feaitherin' an' extendin' th' arms, th' rower rotates his ur 'er body forward. ance th' hans ur pest th' knees, th' rower compresses th' legs which moves th' seat towards th' stern ay th' boat. th' leg compression occurs relatively slowly (compared wi' lae ay th' stroke) which affords th' rower a moment tae "recover" (hence th' recovery nomenclature), an' allows th' boat tae glide ben th' watter. near th' end ay th' recovery, th' rower squares th' blade (rotates th' blade tae perpendicular tae th' watter), an' 'en repeats th' stroke again, beginnin' wi' th' catch."british rowin' technique". the amateur rowin' association. Archived frae the oreeginal Check |url= value (help) on february 19, 2007. Retrieved 2006-12-23.  Check date values in: |archive-date= (help) in a multi-person boat, th' abune motion main be executed in precise synchrony wi' aw ither rowers in th' sheel. coordinated timin' at th' catch is imperatife tae avoid "checking" th' boat, ur slowin' its forward progress. ideally, aw rowers arrife at th' catch at exactly th' sam moment, an' immediately apply pressure oan th' oar wi' th' oar in th' watter which minimizes jerk at th' catch. tae accomplish thes, th' oar main be in th' watter slichtly in advance ay th' rower's arrival at th' catch whaur th' seat reverses direction. when thes action is completit correctly a bit ay watter, cried "back splash" is splashed.

breathin' durin' a rowin' stroke[eedit | eedit soorce]

thaur ur tois schools ay thooght wi' respect tae th' appropriate breathin' technique durin' th' rowin' motion: foo buffs at th' catch an' boss buffs at th' finish. wi th' foo buff technique, rowers exhale durin' th' stroke an' inhale durin' th' recovery. in laboored circumstances, rowers will tak' a quick pant at th' end ay th' stroke afair takin' a deep breath oan th' recovery 'at fills th' buffs bi th' time th' catch is reached. in th' empty-buff technique, rowers inhale durin' th' drife, an' exhale durin' th' recovery sae 'at thay hae boss buffs at th' catch. coz th' knees come up tae th' chest when th' buffs ur boss, thes technique allows th' rower tae reach a wee bit further than if th' buffs waur foo ay air. additionally, thes technique allows th' thighs tae compress th' chest, collapsin' th' buffs further than normal, sicweys inducin' greater air (ain oxygen) volume exchange durin' each breath. a scienteefic study ay th' benefits ay entrained breathin' technique in relatively fit, but untrained rowers did nae shaw onie physiological ur psychological benefit tae aither technique.maclennan, susan e.; silvestri, gerard a.; ward, joseph; mahler, donald a., 1994. diz entrained breathin' improve th' economy ay rowin'? medicine & science in sports & exercise 26(5): 610-614.

rowin' propulsion[eedit | eedit soorce]

rowin' is a cyclic (ur intermittent) f'rm ay propulsion sic' 'at in th' quasi steady-state th' motion ay th' seestem (the seestem comprisin' th' rower, th' oars, an' th' boat), is repeated regularly. in order tae maintain th' steady-state propulsion ay th' seestem withit aither acceleratin' ur deceleratin' th' seestem, th' sum ay aw th' external forces oan th' seestem, averaged ower th' cycle, main be zero. sicweys, th' average drag (retarding) force oan th' seestem main equal th' average propulsion force oan th' seestem. th' drag forces conseest ay aerodynamic drag oan th' superstructure ay th' seestem (components ay th' boat situated abune th' waterline), an aw as th' hydrodynamic drag oan th' submerged portion ay th' seestem. th' propulsion forces ur th' forward reaction ay th' watter oan th' oars while in th' watter. note an aa 'at th' oar can be uised tae provide a drag force (a force actin' against th' forward motion) when th' seestem is brooght tae rest. althoogh th' oar can be conveniently thooght ay as a lever wi' a "fixed" pivot pynt in th' watter, th' blade moves sideways an' sternwards ben th' watter, sae 'at th' magnitude ay th' propulsion force developed is th' result ay a complex interaction atween unsteady fluid mechanics (the watter flaw aroond th' blade) an' solit mechanics an' dynamics (the handle force applee'd tae th' oar, th' oar's inertia an' bendin' characteristic, th' acceleration ay th' boat an' sae on). === distinction frae ither watercraft ===

Main article: watercraft rowing

the distinction atween rowin' an' ither forms ay watter transport, sic' as canoein' ur kayakin', is 'at in rowin' th' oars ur held in place at a pivot pynt 'at is in a fixed poseetion relatife tae th' boat, thes pynt actin' as a fulcrum fur th' oar tae act as a lever. in flatwater rowin', th' boat (an aa cried a shell ur fine boat) is narraw tae avoid drag, an' th' oars ur attached tae oarlocks at th' end ay ootriggers extendin' frae th' sides ay th' boat."resistance". basic physics ay rowing. Retrieved 2007-01-02.  racin' boats an aa hae slidin' seats tae allaw th' uise ay th' legs in addition tae th' body tae apply power tae th' oar. loch racin' kayaks ur canoes, maist racin' shells ur inherently unstable. th' rowin' boats require oars oan aither side tae prevent them frae rollin' ower.

fitness an' health[eedit | eedit soorce]

Rowin' is a body ay th' few non-weecht bearin' sports 'at exercises aw th' majur muscle groops, includin' quads, biceps, triceps, lats, glutes an' abdominal muscles. rowin' improves cardiovascular endurance an' muscular strength. heich-performance rowers tend tae be taa an' muscular: althoogh extra weecht diz increase th' drag oan th' boat, th' lairger athlete's increased power tends tae be mair significant. th' increased power is achieved ben increased lenth ay leverage oan th' oar ben langer limbs ay th' athlete. in multi-rower boats (2,4,ur 8), th' lightest bodie teepically rows in th' baw seat at th' front ay th' boat. rowin' is a law impact activity wi' movement anly in defined ranges, sae twist an' sprain injuries ur raur. houiver, th' repetitife rowin' action can pit strain oan knee joints, th' spine an' th' tendons ay th' forearm, an' inflammation ay thir ur th' maist common rowin' injuries. if a body rows wi' puir technique, especially rowin' wi' a curved raither than straecht back, ither injuries main surface, includin' back pains. "British Rowing Technique". The Amateur Rowing Association. Archived frae the oreeginal on Februar 19, 2007. Retrieved 2006-12-23.  In a multi-person boat, the abuin motion must be executed in precise synchrony wi aw ither rowers in the shell. Coordinated timing at the catch is imperative tae avoid "checking" the boat, or slowing its forward progress. Ideally, aw rowers arrive at the catch at exactly the same moment, an immediately apply pressure on the oar wi the oar in the watter which minimizes jerk at the catch. Tae accomplish this, the oar must be in the watter slichtly in advance o the rower's arrival at the catch whaur the seat reverses direction. When this action is completit correctly a bit o watter, cried "back splash" is splashed.

Breathing during a rowing stroke[eedit | eedit soorce]

Thare are twa schools o thocht wi respect tae the appropriate breathing technique during the rowing motion: Full buffs at the catch an empty buffs at the finish. Wi the full buff technique, rowers exhale during the stroke an inhale during the recovery. In laboured circumstances, rowers will tak a quick pant at the end o the stroke afore takkin a deep breath on the recovery that fills the buffs bi the time the catch is reached. In the empty-buff technique, rowers inhale during the drive, an exhale during the recovery sae that thay hae empty buffs at the catch. Because the knees come up tae the chest when the buffs are empty, this technique allows the rower tae reach a little bit further than if the buffs war full o air. Additionally, this technique allows the thighs tae compress the chest, collapsing the buffs further than normal, sicweys inducing greater air (an oxygen) volume exchange during each breath. A scienteefic study o the benefits o entrained breathing technique in relatively fit, but untrained rowers did nae shaw ony physiological or psychological benefit tae aither technique.MACLENNAN, SUSAN E.; SILVESTRI, GERARD A.; WARD, JOSEPH; MAHLER, DONALD A., 1994. Does entrained breathing improve the economy o rowing? Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 26(5): 610-614.

Rowing propulsion[eedit | eedit soorce]

Rowing is a cyclic (or intermittent) form o propulsion sic that in the quasi steady-state the motion o the seestem (the seestem comprising the rower, the oars, an the boat), is repeated regularly. In order tae maintain the steady-state propulsion o the seestem wioot aither accelerating or decelerating the seestem, the sum o aw the external forces on the seestem, averaged ower the cycle, must be zero. Sicweys, the average drag (retarding) force on the seestem must equal the average propulsion force on the seestem. The drag forces conseest o aerodynamic drag on the superstructure o the seestem (components o the boat situated abuin the waterline), as well as the hydrodynamic drag on the submerged portion o the seestem. The propulsion forces are the forward reaction o the watter on the oars while in the watter. Note an aa that the oar can be uised tae provide a drag force (a force actin against the forward motion) when the seestem is brought tae rest. Awtho the oar can be conveniently thocht o as a lever wi a "fixed" pivot pynt in the watter, the blade moves sideways an sternwards throu the watter, sae that the magnitude o the propulsion force developed is the result o a complex interaction atween unsteady fluid mechanics (the watter flow aroond the blade) an solit mechanics an dynamics (the handle force applee'd tae the oar, the oar's inertia an bending characteristic, the acceleration o the boat an sae on).

Distinction from other watercraft[eedit | eedit soorce]

The distinction atween rowing an ither forms o watter transport, sic as canoeing or kayaking, is that in rowing the oars are held in place at a pivot pynt that is in a fixed poseetion relative tae the boat, this pynt actin as a fulcrum for the oar tae act as a lever. In flatwater rowing, the boat (an aa cried a shell or fine boat) is narrow tae avoid drag, an the oars are attached tae oarlocks at the end o outriggers extendin frae the sides o the boat."Resistance". Basic Physics of Rowing. Retrieved 2007-01-02.  Racing boats an aa hae sliding seats tae allou the uise o the legs in addition tae the body tae apply power tae the oar. Lik racing kayaks or canoes, maist racing shells are inherently unstable. The rowing boats require oars on aither side tae prevent them frae rolling ower.

Fitness and health[eedit | eedit soorce]

Rowing is ane o the few non-wecht bearing sports that exercises aw the major muscle groups, includin quads, biceps, triceps, lats, glutes an abdominal muscles. Rowing improves cardiovascular endurance an muscular strength. High-performance rowers tend tae be taw an muscular: awtho extra wecht daes increase the drag on the boat, the lairger athlete's increased power tends tae be mair significant. The increased power is achieved throu increased lenth o leverage on the oar throu langer limbs o the athlete. In multi-rower boats (2,4,or 8), the lightest person teepically rows in the bow seat at the front o the boat. Rowing is a law impact activity wi movement anly in defined ranges, sae twist an sprain injuries are rare. Houiver, the repetitive rowing action can put strain on knee joints, the spine an the tendons o the forearm, an inflammation o thir are the maist common rowing injuries. If ane rows wi poor technique, especially rowing wi a curved rather than straucht back, ither injuries mey surface, includin back pains.">

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "crew - definition". thefreedictionary. Retrieved 2007-01-02. 
  2. "Speed Rower, Competitive Rowing". Retrieved 2009-02-05.