Roman Baths o Ankara

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The Roman Baths o Ankara
AnkaraRomanBaths1.jpg
The Roman Baths o Ankara
Roman Baths o Ankara is locatit in Ankara
Roman Baths o Ankara
Location within Ankara
General information
Airchitectural styleRoman bath
Toun or ceetyAnkara
KintraTurkey
Coordinates39°56′47″N 32°51′11″E / 39.9465°N 32.853°E / 39.9465; 32.853

The Roman Baths o Ankara are the ruinit remains o an auncient Roman bath complex in Ankara, Turkey, whilk war uncouerit bi houks cairrit oot in 1937-1944, an haeve subsequently been openit tae the public as an open-air museum.[1][2][3][4]

Histerie[eedit | eedit soorce]

The baths are locatit on a plateau, tradeetionally kent as Çankırı Kapı, whilk rises 2.5 metres above the wast side of Çankırı Caddesi, aboot 400 metres frae the centre o the auld Ankara destrict o Ulus, an haes been identified as a höyük (tumulus), wi Roman, mixte wi Byzantine an Seljuk, material at the tap an Phrygie settlement material at the base.[4]

The auncient ceety o Ancyra stood at the crossroads atween the East and Wast an durin the Roman period, the ceety's strategic location led tae its rise tae prominence as the caipital o the province o Galatie. Tae the east of this plateau ran a roadway frae the ceety's saucrit precinct, the area o the Temple o Augustus, a section o whilk, flankit bi seicont or third century grey-veinit marble columns wi Corinthie caipitals, wis uncouerit durin the construction o Çankiri Caddesi, durin the development o Ankara intae the new Turkish caipital in the 1930s.[5][6]

The baths were constructit in the third century by the Roman Emperor Caracalla (212-217), wha an aa constructit the Baths of Caracalla in Roum, in honour o Asclepios, the God o Medicin, an built aroond three principal rooms: the caldarium (hot bath), the tepidarium (warm bath) an the frigidarium (cauld bath) in a typically laid-oot 80m x 120m classical complex. The baths war in uise up until the aicht century when thay war destroyit bi fire leavin anelie the ruins o the basement an first floor.[1][2]

The adjacent höyük (tumulus) wis excavatit bi Prof. Dr. Remzi Oğuz Arık in 1937 revealin the Phrygie an Roman remains. General Director o Museums Hamit Z. Koşay an field director Necati Dolunay admeenisterit further houks, fundit bi the Türk Tarih Kurumnu (Turkis Histerical Society), whilk revealit the bath biggins in 1938-1939 an fully exposit them in 1940-1943. The houks' airchitect Mahmut Akok investigatit an drew a reconstructit plan o the baths afore thair restoration wis begun.[3]

Prof. Dr. Arık wis able tae date construction o the baths tae the reign o Caracalla by coins foond durin the houks supportit bi contemporary inscriptions, whilst further coins indicatit the baths war in continuous uise for aboot 500 years, undergang repair frae time tae time.[7]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Hengirmen, Mehmet (2006). Touristic Ankara. Ankara: Engin Publications. pp. 16–17. ISBN 975-320-124-9.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Important Historical Sites". The Guide - Ankara. Istanbul: APA Uniprint: 45. 2009. ISSN 1303-054X.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "The Roman Baths of Ankara". information panel. The Roman baths are located on Çankırı Caddesi atween Ulus and Yıldrım Beyazıt squares, on the wast side of the street, about 400 meters from Ulus. They are situated on a plateau which rises 2.5 meters above street level. This plateau was known to be a höyük - ancient settlement mound. In 1937, Prof. Dr. Remzi Oğuz Arık excavated the mound, finding remains from the Phrygian and Roman periods. Excavations were carried out in 1938-1939 by the Generak Director of Museums, Hamit Z. Koşay. These excavations brought to light the bath buildings; which were fully exposed in 1940-1943 under the direction of Hamit Z. Koşay with assistance from field director Necati Dolunay and funded by the Türk Tarih Kurumnu (Turkish Historical Society). The excavation's architect, Mahmut Akok, investigated and drew a reconstructed plan of the baths, after which their restoration was begun.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "The Roman Baths of Ankara". information panel. The platform on which the baths stood is an ancient city mound. At the top of the mound are remains from the Roman period (with some admixture of Byzantine and Seljuk material); at the bottom are remains from a Phygrian settlement. In the area traditionally known as Çankırı Kapı, Roman remains of two different types can be distinguished. 1 - A stretch of columned roadway from the ancient Roman city of Ancyra. 2 - The Roman bath and palaestra buildings. In the area there are traces of foundations of other Roman buildings.
  5. "The Roman Baths of Ankara". information panel. Columned Roadway: Tae the east of the bath and palaestra building lies a stretch of columned roadway, which ran frae anucient Ancyra's saucrit precinct, the area of the Temple of Augustus. During the early years of the Turkish Republic when the modern city of Ankara was being developed, the construction of Çankiri Caddesi yieldit remains of the columned street, most of which still lies underground. The columns apparently dating from the second or third centuries A.D., are made fraaw grey veined marble and haeve Corinthian caipitals.
  6. "The Roman Baths of Ankara". information panel. The Bath Buildings: Ancient Ancyra, ruled by the Tektosag Galatians during the Galatian period, stood at the crossroads between the East and West. During the Roman period, the city's important location and its prominence as the capital of the province of Galatie led to its further development. Excavations carried out in 1937-1944 revealed a magnificent Roman building complex, including a palaestra and covered baths.
  7. "The Roman Baths of Ankara". information panel. The construction of the bath buildings haes been datit by coins found during the excavations to the reign of Roman emperor Caracalla (A.D. 212-217). This dating is supported by several contemporary inscriptions mentioning Tiberius Julius Justus Junianus, a prominent citizen of the city who was the responsible for the construction of the baths. Ither coins foond during the course of excavations indicate that the baths were in coninuous uise for about 500 years, undergaein repair frae time tae time. The baths are popularly known as the Baths of Caracalla.