Roman Baths o Ankara

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The Roman Baths of Ankara
The Roman Baths of Ankara
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General information
Airchitectural style Roman bath
Toun or ceety Ankara
Kintra Turkey
Coordinates 39°56′47″N 32°51′11″E / 39.9465°N 32.853°E / 39.9465; 32.853

The Roman Baths o Ankara are the ruined remains of an auncient Roman bath complex in Ankara, Turkey, which were uncovered by excavations carried out in 1937-1944, and haeve subsequently been opened tae the public as an open-air museum.[1][2][3][4]

Histerie[eedit | eedit soorce]

The baths are locatit on a plateau, tradeetionally kent as Çankırı Kapı, which rises 2.5 meters above the wast side of Çankırı Caddesi, aboot 400 meters frae the centre of the auld Ankara destrict of Ulus, and haes been identified as a höyük (tumulus), with Roman, mixed with Byzantine and Seljuk, material at the top and Phrygian settlement material at the base.[4]

The auncient ceety of Ancyra stood at the crossroads between the East and Wast and during the Roman period, the ceety's strategic location led tae its rise tae prominence as the caipital of the province of Galatia. Tae the east of this plateau ran a roadway frae the ceety's saucrit precinct, the area of the Temple of Augustus, a section of which, flanked by seicont or third century grey-veined marble columns with Corinthian caipitals, wis uncovered during the construction of Çankiri Caddesi, during the development of Ankara into the new Turkish capital in the 1930s.[5][6]

The baths were constructit in the third century by the Roman Emperor Caracalla (212-217), who awso constructit the Baths of Caracalla in Roum, in honour of Asclepios, the God of Medicine, and built aroond three principal rooms: the caldarium (hot bath), the tepidarium (warm bath) and the frigidarium (cauld bath) in a typically laid-out 80m x 120m classical complex. The baths were in uise up until the eighth century when they were destroyed by fire leaving anelie the ruins of the basement and first floor.[1][2]

The adjacent höyük (tumulus) wis excavatit by Prof. Dr. Remzi Oğuz Arık in 1937 revealing the Phrygian and Roman remains. General Director of Museums Hamit Z. Koşay and field director Necati Dolunay admeenisterit further excavations, fundit bi the Türk Tarih Kurumnu (Turkis Histerical Society), which revealed the bath biggins in 1938-1939 and fully exposed them in 1940-1943. Excavation's airchitect Mahmut Akok investigatit and drew a reconstructit plan of the baths before thair restoration wis begun.[3]

Prof. Dr. Arık wis able tae date construction of the baths tae the reign Caracalla by coins foond during the excavations supportit by contemporary inscriptions, whilst further coins indicatit the baths were in continuous uise for about 500 years, undergoing repair from time to time.[7]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Hengirmen, Mehmet (2006). Touristic Ankara. Ankara: Engin Publications. pp. 16–17. ISBN 975-320-124-9. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Important Historical Sites". The Guide - Ankara. Istanbul: APA Uniprint: 45. 2009. ISSN 1303-054X. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 "The Roman Baths of Ankara". information panel. The Roman baths are located on Çankırı Caddesi atween Ulus and Yıldrım Beyazıt squares, on the wast side of the street, about 400 meters from Ulus. They are situated on a plateau which rises 2.5 meters above street level. This plateau was known to be a höyük - ancient settlement mound. In 1937, Prof. Dr. Remzi Oğuz Arık excavated the mound, finding remains from the Phrygian and Roman periods. Excavations were carried out in 1938-1939 by the Generak Director of Museums, Hamit Z. Koşay. These excavations brought to light the bath buildings; which were fully exposed in 1940-1943 under the direction of Hamit Z. Koşay with assistance from field director Necati Dolunay and funded by the Türk Tarih Kurumnu (Turkish Historical Society). The excavation's architect, Mahmut Akok, investigated and drew a reconstructed plan of the baths, after which their restoration was begun. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "The Roman Baths of Ankara". information panel. The platform on which the baths stood is an ancient city mound. At the top of the mound are remains from the Roman period (with some admixture of Byzantine and Seljuk material); at the bottom are remains from a Phygrian settlement. In the area traditionally known as Çankırı Kapı, Roman remains of two different types can be distinguished. 1 - A stretch of columned roadway from the ancient Roman city of Ancyra. 2 - The Roman bath and palaestra buildings. In the area there are traces of foundations of other Roman buildings. 
  5. "The Roman Baths of Ankara". information panel. Columned Roadway: Tae the east of the bath and palaestra building lies a stretch of columned roadway, which ran frae anucient Ancyra's saucrit precinct, the area of the Temple of Augustus. During the early years of the Turkish Republic when the modern city of Ankara was being developed, the construction of Çankiri Caddesi yieldit remains of the columned street, most of which still lies underground. The columns apparently dating from the second or third centuries A.D., are made fraaw grey veined marble and haeve Corinthian caipitals. 
  6. "The Roman Baths of Ankara". information panel. The Bath Buildings: Ancient Ancyra, ruled by the Tektosag Galatians during the Galatian period, stood at the crossroads between the East and West. During the Roman period, the city's important location and its prominence as the capital of the province of Galatie led to its further development. Excavations carried out in 1937-1944 revealed a magnificent Roman building complex, including a palaestra and covered baths. 
  7. "The Roman Baths of Ankara". information panel. The construction of the bath buildings haes been datit by coins found during the excavations to the reign of Roman emperor Caracalla (A.D. 212-217). This dating is supported by several contemporary inscriptions mentioning Tiberius Julius Justus Junianus, a prominent citizen of the city who was the responsible for the construction of the baths. Ither coins foond during the course of excavations indicate that the baths were in coninuous uise for about 500 years, undergaein repair frae time tae time. The baths are popularly known as the Baths of Caracalla.