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Rhodium,  45Rh
Rhodium powder pressed melted.jpg
General properties
Name, seembol rhodium, Rh
Appearance silvery white metallic
Pronunciation /ˈrdiəm/ ROH-dee-əm
Rhodium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Airn (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Capper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Siller (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercur (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Leid (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)


Atomic nummer (Z) 45
Group, block group 9, d-block
Period period 5
Element category   transeetion metal
Staundart atomic wicht (Ar) 102.90550
Electron configuration [Kr] 5s1 4d8
per shell
2, 8, 18, 16, 1
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 2237 K ​(1964 °C, ​3567 °F)
Bylin pynt 3968 K ​(3695 °C, ​6683 °F)
Density near r.t. 12.41 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 10.7 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 26.59 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 494 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 24.98 J/(mol·K)
vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2288 2496 2749 3063 3405 3997
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1[1], -1
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.28
Atomic radius empirical: 134 pm
Covalent radius 142±7 pm
Creestal structur face-centred cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structur for rhodium
Speed o soond thin rod 4700 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 8.2 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 150 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 43.3 n Ω·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic[2]
Young's modulus 380 GPa
Shear modulus 150 GPa
Bouk modulus 275 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.26
Mohs haurdness 6.0
Vickers haurdness 1246 MPa
Brinell haurdness 1100 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-16-6
Diskivery William Hyde Wollaston (1804)
First isolation William Hyde Wollaston (1804)
Maist stable isotopes o rhodium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
99Rh syn 16.1 d ε - 99Ru
γ 0.089, 0.353,
101mRh syn 4.34 d ε - 101Ru
IT 0.157 101Rh
γ 0.306, 0.545 -
101Rh syn 3.3 y ε - 101Ru
γ 0.127, 0.198,
102mRh syn 2.9 y ε - 102Ru
γ 0.475, 0.631,
0.697, 1.046
102Rh syn 207 d ε - 102Ru
β+ 0.826, 1.301 102Ru
β 1.151 102Pd
γ 0.475, 0.628 -
103Rh 100% - (SF) <15.462
105Rh syn 35.36 h β 0.247, 0.260,
γ 0.306, 0.318 -
Decay modes in parentheses are predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
· references

Rhodium is a chemical element that is a rare, sillery-white, haird, an chemically inert transeetion metal an a member o the platinum group. It haes the chemical seembol Rh an atomic nummer 45. It is componed o anly ane naiturally-occurrin isotope, 103Rh. Naiturally occurrin rhodium is uisually foond as the free metal, alloyed wi seemilar metals, an rarely as a chemical compoond in minerals sic as bowieite an rhodplumsite. It is ane o the rarest an maist valuable precious metals.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Rhodium: rhodium(I) fluoride compound data". OpenMOPAC.net. Retrieved 2007-12-10. 
  2. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.