Rhodium

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Rhodium, 45Rh
Template:Infobox element/symbol-to-top-image/alt
Rhodium
Pronunciation/ˈrdiəm/ (ROH-dee-əm)
Appearancesilvery white metallic
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Rh)102.90549(2)[1]
Mass numberRh:
Rhodium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
Co

Rh

Ir
rutheniumrhodiumpalladium
Atomic nummer (Z)45
Groupgroup 9
Periodperiod 5
Blockd-block
Element category  Transeetion metal
Electron confeeguration[Kr] 4d8 5s1
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 16, 1
Pheesical properties
Phase at STPsolit
Meltin pynt2237 K ​(1964 °C, ​3567 °F)
Bylin pynt3968 K ​(3695 °C, ​6683 °F)
Density (near r.t.)12.41 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)10.7 g/cm3
Heat o fusion26.59 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation494 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity24.98 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 2288 2496 2749 3063 3405 3997
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−3, −1, 0, +1,[2] +2, +3, +4, +5, +6 (an amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.28
Atomic radiusempirical: 134 pm
Covalent radius142±7 pm
Colour lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines o rhodium
Ither properties
Naitural occurrenceRh: Primordial
Creestal structurface-centred cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic creestal structur for rhodium
Speed o soond thin rod4700 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion8.2 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity150 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity43.3 n Ω·m (at 0 °C)
Magnetic orderinparamagnetic[3]
Young's modulus380 GPa
Shear modulus150 GPa
Bulk modulus275 GPa
Poisson ratio0.26
Mohs haurdness6.0
Vickers haurdness1246 MPa
Brinell haurdness1100 MPa
CAS Nummer7440-16-6
History
DiskiveryWilliam Hyde Wollaston (1804)
First isolationWilliam Hyde Wollaston (1804)
Main isotopes o rhodium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
99Rh syn 16.1 d ε 99Ru
γ - 101mRh syn 4.34 d ε 101Ru
IT 101Rh
γ -
101Rh syn 3.3 y ε 101Ru
γ -
102mRh syn 2.9 y ε 102Ru
γ -
102Rh syn 207 d ε 102Ru
β+ 102Ru
β 102Pd
γ -
103Rh 100% - (SF)
105Rh syn 35.36 h β 105Pd
γ -
Decay modes in parentheses are predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
| references

Rhodium is a chemical element that is a rare, sillery-white, haird, an chemically inert transeetion metal an a member o the platinum group. It haes the chemical seembol Rh an atomic nummer 45. It is componed o anly ane naiturally-occurrin isotope, 103Rh. Naiturally occurrin rhodium is uisually foond as the free metal, alloyed wi seemilar metals, an rarely as a chemical compoond in minerals sic as bowieite an rhodplumsite. It is ane o the rarest an maist valuable precious metals.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Meija, Juris; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. Cite uses deprecated parameter |displayauthors= (help)
  2. "Rhodium: rhodium(I) fluoride compound data". OpenMOPAC.net. Retrieved 10 December 2007.
  3. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  4. "Rhodium: rhodium(I) fluoride compound data". OpenMOPAC.net. Retrieved 10 December 2007.