Qing Dynasty

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Great Qing

Daicing gurun.svg
Banner o Qing Dynasty
"Gong Jin'ou"
("Cup o Solid Gowd")
The Qing Empire in 1890.
The Qing Empire in 1890.
Common leidsCheenese,Manchu, Mongolian, Tibetan, Turki (Modern Uighur),[1] numerous regional leids an dialects o Cheenese
Heaven worship, Shamanism, Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Christianity, Cheenese folk releegion, ethers
GovrenmentAbsolute monarchy
• 1644–1661
Shunzhi Emperor
• 1908–1912
Xuantong Emperor
• 1908–1912
Empress Dowager Longyu
Prime Meenister 
• 1911
• 1911–1912
Yuan Shikai
Historical eraImperial era
25 April 1644
27 Mey 1644
1 Aug 1894–17 Apr 1895
10 October 1911
12 Februar 1912
1760 est.13,150,000 km2 (5,080,000 sq mi)
1790 est. (incl. vassals)[2]14,700,000 km2 (5,700,000 sq mi)
• 1740
• 1776
• 1790
CurrencyTael (Tls.)
Precedit bi
Succeedit bi
Ming Dynasty
Shun Dynasty
Republic o Cheenae (1912–1949)
The day pairt o Afghanistan
 Hong Kong
Qing Dynasty
Chinese name
Empire of the Great Qing
Traditional Chinese帝國
Simplified Chinese帝国
Later Jin Dynasty
Traditional Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Manchu name
Manchu scriptDaicing gurun.svg (Daicing Gurun)
Amaga aisin gurun1.png (Amaga Aisin Gurun)

The Qing Dynasty, an aa Empire o the Great Qing or Great Qing, wis the last imperial dynasty o Cheenae, rulin frae 1644 tae 1912 wi a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It wis precedit bi the Ming Dynasty an succeeded bi the Republic o Cheenae.

The dynasty wis foondit bi the Jurchen Aisin Gioro clan in contemporary Northeastren Cheenae. The Aisin Gioro leader, Nurhachi, that wis oreeginally a vassal o the Ming emperors, began unifyin the Jurchen clans in the late saxteent century. Bi 1635, Nurhachi's son Hong Taiji coud claim thay constitutit a single an unitit Manchu fowk an began forcin the Ming oot o Liaoning in soothren Manchurie. In 1644, the Ming caipital Beijing wis sacked bi a paisant revolt led bi Li Zicheng, an umwhile minor Ming offeecial that acame the leader o the paisant revolt, who then proclaimed the Shun dynasty. The last Ming ruler, the Chongzhen Emperor, committit suicide whan the ceety fell. When Li Zicheng moved against Ming general Wu Sangui, the latter made an alliance wi the Manchus an opened the Shanhai Pass tae the Manchurian airmy. Unner Prince Dorgon, thay seized control o Beijing an owerthrew Li Zicheng's short-lived Shun Dynasty. Complete pacification o Cheenae wis accomplished aroond 1683 unner the Kangxi Emperor.

Ower the course o its reign, the Qing acame heichly integratit wi Cheenese cultur. The imperial examinations continued an Han ceevil servants admeenistered the empire alongside Manchu anes. The Qing reached its heicht unner the Qianlong Emperor in the aichteenth century, expandin beyond Cheenae's prior an later boondaries. Imperial corruption exemplified bi the meenister Heshen an a series o rebellions, naitural disasters, an defeats in wars against European pouers gravely weakened the Qing durin the nineteent century. "Unequal Treaties" providit for extraterritoriality an removed lairge auries o treaty ports frae Cheenese sovereignty. The govrenment attempts tae modrenise durin the Sel-Strenthenin Muivement in the late 19t century yieldit few lastin results. Losin the First Sino-Japanese War o 1894–1895 wis a wattershed for the Qing govrenment an the result demonstratit that reform haed modrenized Japan signeeficantly syne the Meiji Restoration in 1867, especially as compared wi the Sel-Strenthenin Muivement in Cheenae.

The 1911 Wuchang Uprisin o the New Airmy endit wi the owerthrow o the Empress Dowager Longyu an the infant Puyi on Februar 12, 1912. Despite the declaration o the Republic o Cheenae, the generals wad continue tae ficht amongst themselves for the next several decades durin the Warlord Era. Aisin-Gioro Puyi wis briefly restored tae pouer in Beijing bi Zhang Xun in Julie 1917, an in Manchukuo bi the Japanese atween 1932 an 1945.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Mark C. Elliott. The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China'. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001. pp. 290-291.[1]
  2. Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires" (PDF). Journal of world-systems research. 12 (2): 219–229. ISSN 1076–156x Check |issn= value (help). Retrieved 12 August 2010.