Qing Dynasty

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Great Qing
大清
Daicing gurun.svg

 

1644–1912

Flag

Anthem
鞏金甌
"Gong Jin'ou"
("Cup o Solid Gowd")
The Qing Empire in 1890.
Caipital Beijing
Leid(s) Cheenese,Manchu, Mongolian, Tibetan, Turki (Modern Uighur),[1] numerous regional leids an dialects o Cheenese
Releegion Heaven worship, Shamanism, Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Christianity, Cheenese folk releegion, ethers
Government Absolute monarchy
Emperor
 − 1644–1661 Shunzhi Emperor
 − 1908–1912 Xuantong Emperor
Regent
 − 1908–1912 Empress Dowager Longyu
Prime Meenister
 − 1911 Yikuang
 − 1911–1912 Yuan Shikai
Historical era Imperial era
 - Collapse o the Ming 25 April 1644
 - Battle o Shanhai Pass 27 Mey 1644
 - Sino-Japanese War 1 Aug 1894–17 Apr 1895
 - Wuchang Uprisin 10 October 1911
 - Xinhai Revolution 12 Februar 1912
Aurie
 − 1760 est. 13,150,000 km2 (5,077,243 sq mi)
 − 1790 est. (incl. vassals)[2] 14,700,000 km2 (5,675,702 sq mi)
Population
 − 1740 est. 140,000,000 
 − 1776 est. 268,238,000 
 − 1790 est. 301,000,000 
Siller Tael (Tls.)
The day pairt o Banner o Afghanistan Afghanistan
Banner o Burma Burma
Flag of the People's Republic of China Cheenae
Banner o Hong Kong Hong Kong
Banner o Indie Indie
Banner o Kazakhstan Kazakhstan
Banner o Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan
Banner o Macau Macao
Banner o Mongolie Mongolie
Banner o Roushie Roushie
Banner o Republic o Cheenae Taiwan
Banner o Tajikistan Tajikistan
Banner o Vietnam Vietnam
Qing Dynasty
Chinese name
Cheenese
Empire of the Great Qing
Tradeetional Cheenese 帝國
Simplified Cheenese 帝国
Later Jin Dynasty
Tradeetional Cheenese
Simplified Cheenese
Manchu name
Manchu Daicing gurun.svg (Daicing Gurun)

Amaga aisin gurun1.png (Amaga Aisin Gurun)

The Qing Dynasty, also Empire o the Great Qing or Great Qing, wis the last imperial dynasty o Cheenae, rulin frae 1644 tae 1912 wi a brief, abortive restoration in 1917. It wis precedit bi the Ming Dynasty an succeeded bi the Republic o Cheenae.

The dynasty wis foondit bi the Jurchen Aisin Gioro clan in contemporary Northeastren Cheenae. The Aisin Gioro leader, Nurhachi, who wis originally a vassal o the Ming emperors, began unifyin the Jurchen clans in the late saxteent century. Bi 1635, Nurhachi's son Hong Taiji could claim thay constituted a single an unitit Manchu fowk an began forcin the Ming oot o Liaoning in soothren Manchurie. In 1644, the Ming caipital Beijing wis sacked bi a peasant revolt led bi Li Zicheng, an umwhile minor Ming offeecial who acame the leader o the peasant revolt, who then proclaimed the Shun dynasty. The last Ming ruler, the Chongzhen Emperor, committed suicide when the ceety fell. When Li Zicheng moved against Ming general Wu Sangui, the latter made an alliance wi the Manchus an opened the Shanhai Pass tae the Manchurian airmy. Unner Prince Dorgon, thay seized control o Beijing an owerthrew Li Zicheng's short-lived Shun Dynasty. Complete pacification o Cheenae wis accomplished aroond 1683 unner the Kangxi Emperor.

Ower the course o its reign, the Qing acame heichly integratit wi Cheenese cultur. The imperial examinations continued an Han ceevil servants admeenistered the empire alongside Manchu anes. The Qing reached its heicht unner the Qianlong Emperor in the aichteenth century, expandin beyond Cheenae's prior an later boondaries. Imperial corruption exemplified bi the meenister Heshen an a series o rebellions, naitural disasters, an defeats in wars against European pouers gravely weakened the Qing durin the nineteent century. "Unequal Treaties" providit for extraterritoriality an removed lairge auries o treaty ports frae Cheenese sovereignty. The govrenment attempts tae modernize durin the Self-Strengthenin Movement in the late 19t century yielded few lastin results. Losin the First Sino-Japanese War o 1894–1895 wis a watershed for the Qing govrenment an the result demonstratit that reform haed modrenized Japan significantly syne the Meiji Restoration in 1867, especially as compared wi the Self-Strengthenin Movement in Cheenae.

The 1911 Wuchang Uprisin o the New Airmy endit wi the owerthrow o the Empress Dowager Longyu an the infant Puyi on Februar 12, 1912. Despite the declaration o the Republic o Cheenae, the generals would continue tae ficht amongst themselves for the next several decades durin the Warlord Era. Aisin-Gioro Puyi wis briefly restored tae pouer in Beijing bi Zhang Xun in Julie 1917, an in Manchukuo bi the Japanese atween 1932 an 1945.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Mark C. Elliott. The Manchu Way: The Eight Banners and Ethnic Identity in Late Imperial China'. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2001. pp. 290-291.[1]
  2. Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of world-systems research 12 (2): 219–229. ISSN 1076–156x Check |issn= value (help). Retrieved 12 August 2010.