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Praseodymium,  59Pr
General properties
Name, seembol praseodymium, Pr
Pronunciation /przəˈdɪmiəm/
Appearance grayish white
Praseodymium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Iron (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Copper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Silver (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercury (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Lead (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)


Atomic nummer 59
Staundart atomic wicht (±) (Ar) 140.90766(2)
Element category   lanthanide
Group, block group n/a, f-block
Period period 6
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f3 6s2
per shell
2, 8, 18, 21, 8, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 1208 K ​(935 °C, ​1715 °F)
Boilin pynt 3793 K ​(3520 °C, ​6368 °F)
Density near r.t. 6.77 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 6.50 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 6.89 kJ/mol
Heat o 331 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 27.20 J/(mol·K)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1771 1973 (2227) (2571) (3054) (3779)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2 (mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.13
Atomic radius empirical: 182 pm
Covalent radius 203±7 pm
Crystal structur hexagonal
Hexagonal crystal structure for praseodymium
Speed o soond thin rod 2280 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (α, poly) 6.7 µm/(m·K)
Thermal conductivity 12.5 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (α, poly)
0.700 µ Ω·m
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic[2]
Young's modulus (α form) 37.3 GPa
Shear modulus (α form) 14.8 GPa
Bulk modulus (α form) 28.8 GPa
Poisson ratio (α form) 0.281
Vickers haurdness 400 MPa
Brinell haurdness 481 MPa
CAS Registry Nummer 7440-10-0
Discovery Carl Auer von Welsbach (1885)
Maist stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o praseodymium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
141Pr 100% - (SF) <48.450
142Pr syn 19.12 h β 2.162 142Nd
ε 0.745 142Ce
143Pr syn 13.57 d β 0.934 143Nd
Decay modes in parentheses hae been predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
· references

Praseodymium is a chemical element that haes the seembol Pr an atomic nummer 59. Praseodymium is a saft, sillery, malleable an ductile metal in the lanthanide group. It is too reactive tae be foond in native furm, an when airtificially prepared, it slowly develops a green oxide coatin.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "praseodymium". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. 2001. 
  2. M. Jackson "Magnetism of Rare Earth" The IRM quarterly col. 10, No. 3, p. 1, 2000