Phosgene

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Phosgene[1]
Full structural formula wi dimensions
Space-filling model
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
Carbonyl dichloride[2]
Ither names
CG
Carbon dichloride oxide
Carbon oxychloride
Chloroformyl chloride
Dichloroformaldehyde
Dichloromethanone
Dichloromethanal
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
EC Nummer 200-870-3
RTECS nummer SY5600000
UNII
UN nummer 1076
Properties
COCl2
Molar mass 98.92 g/mol
Appearance colourless gas
Odour suffocating, like musty hay[3]
Density 4.248 g/L (15 °C, gas)
1.432 g/cm3 (0 °C, liquid)
Meltin pynt −118 °C (−180 °F; 155 K)
Bylin pynt 8.3 °C (46.9 °F; 281.4 K)
decomposes in water[4]
Solubility soluble in benzene, toluene, acetic acid
decomposes in alcohol and acid
Vapour pressur 1.6 atm (20°C)[3]
Magnetic susceptibility −48·10−6 cm3/mol
Structur
Molecular shape Planar, trigonal
1.17 D
Hazards
Safety data sheet ICSC 0007
EU clessification Very Toxic T+
R-phrases R26 R34
S-phrases (S1/2) S9 S26 S36/37/39 S45
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will nae burn. E.g., watterHealth code 4: Very short exposur could cause daith or major residual injury. E.g., VX gasReactivity code 1: Normally stable, but can acome unstable at elevatit temperaturs an pressurs. E.g., calciumSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
0
4
1
Flash pynt Non-flammable
Threshold Leemit Value 0.1 ppm
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
500 ppm (human, 1 min)
340 ppm (rat, 30 min)
438 ppm (moose, 30 min)
243 ppm (rabbit, 30 min)
316 ppm (guinea pig, 30 min)
1022 ppm (dug, 20 min)
145 ppm (monkey, 1 min)[5]
3 ppm (human, 2.83 h)
30 ppm (human, 17 min)
50 ppm (mammal, 5 min)
88 ppm (human, 30 min)
46 ppm (cat, 15 min)
50 ppm (human, 5 min)
2.7 ppm (mammal, 30 min)[5]
US heal exposur leemits (NIOSH):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3)[3]
REL (Recommendit)
TWA 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3) C 0.2 ppm (0.8 mg/m3) [15-minute][3]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
2 ppm[3]
Relatit compoonds
Relatit compoonds
Thiophosgene
Formaldehyde
Carbonic acid
Urea
Carbon monoxide
Chloroformic acid
Except whaur itherwise notit, data are gien for materials in thair staundart state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
YesY verify (whit is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Phosgene is the chemical compoond wi the formula COCl2. This colourless gas gained infamy as a chemical wappen during Warld War I whaur it wis responsible for aboot 85% o the 100,000 daiths caused bi chemical wappens. It is an aa a valued industrial reagent an biggin block in synthesis o pharmaceuticals an ither organic compoonds. In law concentrations, its odour resembles freshly cut hey or gress.[6] In addition tae its industrial production, small amounts occur frae the breakdoun an the combustion o organochlorine compoonds, sic as thae uised in refrigeration seestems.[7] The chemical wis named bi combinin the Greek wirds "phos" (meanin licht) an "genesis" (birth); it disna mean it conteens ony phosphorus (cf. phosphine).

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Merck Index, 11th Edition, 7310.
  2. Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry : IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book). Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry. 2014. p. 798. doi:10.1039/9781849733069-FP001. ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4.
  3. a b c d e NIOSH Pocket Guide tae Chemical Hazards 0504
  4. "PHOSGENE (cylinder)". Inchem (Chemical Safety Information from Intergovernmental Organizations). International Programme on Chemical Safety and the European Commission.
  5. a b "Phosgene". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  6. CBRNE - Lung-Damaging Agents, Phosgene May 27, 2009
  7. Wolfgang Schneider; Werner Diller (2005), "Phosgene", Ullmann's Encyclopedia o Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_411