Phosgene

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Phosgene[1]
Full structural formula wi dimensions
Space-filling model
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
Carbonyl dichloride[2]
Ither names
CG
Carbon dichloride oxide
Carbon oxychloride
Chloroformyl chloride
Dichloroformaldehyde
Dichloromethanone
Dichloromethanal
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.792
EC Nummer 200-870-3
RTECS nummer SY5600000
UNII
UN nummer 1076
Properties
COCl2
Molar mass 98.92 g/mol
Appearance colourless gas
Odour suffocating, like musty hay[3]
Density 4.248 g/L (15 °C, gas)
1.432 g/cm3 (0 °C, liquid)
Meltin pynt −118 °C (−180 °F; 155 K)
Bylin pynt 8.3 °C (46.9 °F; 281.4 K)
decomposes in water[4]
Solubility soluble in benzene, toluene, acetic acid
decomposes in alcohol and acid
Vapour pressur 1.6 atm (20°C)[3]
Magnetic susceptibility −48·10−6 cm3/mol
Structur
Molecular shape Planar, trigonal
1.17 D
Hazards
Safety data sheet ICSC 0007
EU clessification Very Toxic T+
R-phrases R26 R34
S-phrases (S1/2) S9 S26 S36/37/39 S45
NFPA 704
Flammability code 0: Will nae burn. E.g., watterHealth code 4: Very short exposur could cause daith or major residual injury. E.g., VX gasReactivity code 1: Normally stable, but can acome unstable at elevatit temperaturs an pressurs. E.g., calciumSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
0
4
1
Flash pynt Non-flammable
Threshold Leemit Value 0.1 ppm
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
500 ppm (human, 1 min)
340 ppm (rat, 30 min)
438 ppm (moose, 30 min)
243 ppm (rabbit, 30 min)
316 ppm (guinea pig, 30 min)
1022 ppm (dug, 20 min)
145 ppm (monkey, 1 min)[5]
3 ppm (human, 2.83 h)
30 ppm (human, 17 min)
50 ppm (mammal, 5 min)
88 ppm (human, 30 min)
46 ppm (cat, 15 min)
50 ppm (human, 5 min)
2.7 ppm (mammal, 30 min)[5]
US heal exposur leemits (NIOSH):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3)[3]
REL (Recommendit)
TWA 0.1 ppm (0.4 mg/m3) C 0.2 ppm (0.8 mg/m3) [15-minute][3]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
2 ppm[3]
Relatit compoonds
Relatit compoonds
Thiophosgene
Formaldehyde
Carbonic acid
Urea
Carbon monoxide
Chloroformic acid
Except whaur itherwise notit, data are gien for materials in thair staundart state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
YesY verify (whit is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Phosgene is the chemical compoond wi the formula COCl2. This colourless gas gained infamy as a chemical wappen during Warld War I whaur it wis responsible for aboot 85% o the 100,000 daiths caused bi chemical wappens. It is an aa a valued industrial reagent an biggin block in synthesis o pharmaceuticals an ither organic compoonds. In law concentrations, its odour resembles freshly cut hey or gress.[6] In addition tae its industrial production, small amounts occur frae the breakdoun an the combustion o organochlorine compoonds, sic as thae uised in refrigeration seestems.[7] The chemical wis named bi combinin the Greek wirds "phos" (meanin licht) an "genesis" (birth); it disna mean it conteens ony phosphorus (cf. phosphine).

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Merck Index, 11th Edition, 7310.
  2. Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry : IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book). Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry. 2014. p. 798. doi:10.1039/9781849733069-FP001. ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 NIOSH Pocket Guide tae Chemical Hazards 0504
  4. "PHOSGENE (cylinder)". Inchem (Chemical Safety Information from Intergovernmental Organizations). International Programme on Chemical Safety and the European Commission. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Phosgene". Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). 
  6. CBRNE - Lung-Damaging Agents, Phosgene May 27, 2009
  7. Wolfgang Schneider; Werner Diller (2005), "Phosgene", Ullmann's Encyclopedia o Industrial Chemistry, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_411