Permafrost

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Permafrost
Circum-Arctic Map of Permafrost and Ground Ice Conditions.png
Map shawin extent an teeps o permafrost in the Northren Hemisphere
Uised in Internaitional Permafrost Association
Climate Heich latitudes, alpine regions

In geology, permafrost is grund,[1] includin rock or (cryotic) sile, at or ablo the freezin pynt o watter 0 °C (32 °F) for twa or mair years. Maist permafrost is locatit in heich latitudes (in an aroond the Arctic an Antarctic regions), but alpine permafrost mey exeest at heich altitudes in much lawer latitudes. Grund ice isna ayeweys present, as mey be in the case o nonporous bedrock, but it frequently occurs an it mey be in amoonts exceedin the potential hydraulic saturation o the grund material. Permafrost accoonts for 0.022% o tot watter on yird[2] an exeests in 24% of exposed laund in the Northren Hemisphere.[3][4] It an aa occurs subsea on the continental shelves o the continents surroondin the Arctic Ocean, portions o which war exposed during the last glacial period,[5] wi global wather implications.[6]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Osterkamp, T. E. (2001), "Sub-Sea Permafrost" (PDF), Academic Press: 2902–12, retrieved 2014-11-08 
  2. Shiklomanov, Igor (1993), "World fresh water resources", in Gleick, Peter H., Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World's Fresh Water Resources, New York: Oxford University Press, retrieved 2014-03-02 
  3. "Siberian permafrost thaw warning sparked by cave data". BBC News. 22 February 2013. Archived frae the oreeginal on 23 February 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2013. 
  4. Harvey, Fiona (21 February 2013). "1.5C rise in temperature enough to start permafrost melt, scientists warn". The Guardian. Archived frae the oreeginal on 23 February 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2013. 
  5. Editors (2014). "What is Permafrost?". International Permafrost Association. Retrieved 2014-11-08. 
  6. Margaret Kriz Hobson (December 1, 2016). "Melting Permafrost Could Affect Weather Worldwide; It's not just releasing greenhouse gases—it may also alter the ocean's chemistry and circulation patterns". scientificamerican.com. Scientific American. Retrieved December 2, 2016 – via ClimateWire.