Parapsychology

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Photographs that purportedly depictit ghaists or speerits war popular in the 19t century.

Parapsychology is the study o paranormal an psychic phenomena, includin telepathy, precogneetion, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, near-daith experiences, synchronicity, reincarnation, apparitional experiences, an ither paranormal claims. It is identifee'd as pseudoscience bo a vast majority o mainstream scientists.[1][2]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

    • Gross, Paul R; Levitt, Norman; Lewis, Martin W (1996), The Flight from Science and Reason, New York Academy of Sciences, p. 565, ISBN 978-0801856761, The overwhelming majority of scientists consider parapsychology, by whatever name, to be pseudoscience. 
    • Friedlander, Michael W (1998), At the Fringes of Science, Westview Press, p. 119, ISBN 978-0-8133-2200-1, Parapsychology has failed to gain general scientific acceptance even for its improved methods and claimed successes, and it is still treated with a lopsided ambivalence among the scientific community. Most scientists write it off as pseudoscience unworthy of their time. 
    • Pigliucci, Massimo; Boudry, Maarten (2013), Philosophy of Pseudoscience: Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem, University Of Chicago Press, p. 158, hdl:1854/LU-3161824, ISBN 978-0-226-05196-3, Many observers refer to the field as a 'pseudoscience'. When mainstream scientists say that the field of parapsychology is not scientific, they mean that no satisfying naturalistic cause-and-effect explanation for these supposed effects has yet been proposed and that the field's experiments cannot be consistently replicated. 
    • Alcock, James (1981), Parapsychology-Science Or Magic?: A Psychological Perspective, Pergamon Press, pp. 194–196, ISBN 978-0080257730 
    • Hacking, Ian (1993), "Some reasons for not taking parapsychology very seriously", Dialogue: Canadian Philosophical Review, 32 (3): 587–594, doi:10.1017/s0012217300012361 
    • Bierman, DJ; Spottiswoode, JP; Bijl, A (2016), "Testing for Questionable Research Practices in a Meta-Analysis: An Example from Experimental Parapsychology", PLoS ONE, 11 (5): 1, Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1153049B, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0153049, PMC 4856278Freely accessible, PMID 27144889, We consider [questionable research practices] in the context of a meta-analysis database of Ganzfeld–telepathy experiments from the field of experimental parapsychology. The Ganzfeld database is particularly suitable for this study, because the parapsychological phenomenon it investigates is widely believed to be nonexistent ... results are still significant (p = 0.003) with QRPs. 
    • Carroll, Sean (2016), "Thinking About Psychic Powers Helps Us Think About Science", Wired, Today, parapsychology is not taken seriously by most academics.