Nicotine

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Nicotine
Nicotine.svg
Nicotine-3D-vdW.png
Clinical data
Tred names Nicorette, Nicotrol
AHFS/Drugs.com monograph
Pregnancy
category
  • AU: D
  • US: D (Evidence o risk)
Dependence
liability
Pheesical: law–moderate
Psychological: moderate–heich[1][2]
Addiction
liability
Heich[3]
Routes o
admeenistration
Inhalation; insufflation; oral – buccal, sublingual, an ingeestion; transdermal; rectal
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • AU: Unscheduled
  • CA: Unscheduled
  • DE: Unscheduled
  • NZ: Unscheduled
  • UK: Unscheduled
  • US: Unscheduled
  • UN: Unscheduled
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein bindin <5%
Metabolism Primarily hepatic: CYP2A6, CYP2B6, FMO3, ithers
Metabolites Cotinine
Biological hauf-life 1-2 oors; 20 oors active metabolite
Excretion Urine (10-20% (gum), pH-dependent; 30% (inhaled); 10-30% (intranasal))
Identifiers
CAS Nummer
PubChem CID
IUPHAR/BPS
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
PDB ligand
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.177
Chemical and physical data
Formula C10H14N2
Molar mass 162.23 g/mol
3D model (Jmol)
Chirality Chiral
Density 1.01 g/cm3
Meltin pynt −79 °C (−110 °F)
Bylin pynt 247 °C (477 °F)
 NYesY (whit is this?)  (verify)

Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic alkaloid foond in the nichtshade faimily o plants (Solanaceae) an a stimulant drog.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. D'Souza MS, Markou A (2011). "Neuronal mechanisms underlying development of nicotine dependence: implications for novel smoking-cessation treatments". Addict Sci Clin Pract. 6 (1): 4–16. PMC 3188825Freely accessible. PMID 22003417. Withdrawal symptoms upon cessation of nicotine intake: Chronic nicotine use induces neuroadaptations in the brain’s reward system that result in the development of nicotine dependence. Thus, nicotine-dependent smokers must continue nicotine intake to avoid distressing somatic and affective withdrawal symptoms. Newly abstinent smokers experience symptoms such as depressed mood, anxiety, irritability, difficulty concentrating, craving, bradycardia, insomnia, gastrointestinal discomfort, and weight gain (Shiffman and Jarvik, 1976; Hughes et al., 1991). Experimental animals, such as rats and mice, exhibit a nicotine withdrawal syndrome that, like the human syndrome, includes both somatic signs and a negative affective state (Watkins et al., 2000; Malin et al., 2006). The somatic signs of nicotine withdrawal include rearing, jumping, shakes, abdominal constrictions, chewing, scratching, and facial tremors. The negative affective state of nicotine withdrawal is characterized by decreased responsiveness to previously rewarding stimuli, a state called anhedonia. 
  2. Cosci, F; Pistelli, F; Lazzarini, N; Carrozzi, L (2011). "Nicotine dependence and psychological distress: outcomes and clinical implications in smoking cessation". Psychology research and behavior management. 4: 119–28. doi:10.2147/prbm.s14243. PMC 3218785Freely accessible. PMID 22114542. 
  3. Mannfred A. Hollinger (19 October 2007). Introduction to Pharmacology, Third Edition. Abingdon: CRC Press. pp. 222–223. ISBN 978-1-4200-4742-4.