Nicolas Appert

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Nicolas Appert 1841

Nicolas Appert (17 November 1749 Châlons-en-Champagne, Marne– 1 June 1841 Massy), wis the French inventor of airtight food preservation. He is kent as the "faither o cannin".[1]

Biography[eedit | eedit soorce]

He wis a confectioner an chef in Paris frae 1784 tae 1795. In 1795, he began experimentin wi ways tae preserve fuidstuffs, succeedin wi soups, vegetables, juices, dairy products, jellies, jams, an syrups. He placed the fuid in glass jars, sealed them wi cork an sealin wax and placed them in boilin water.[2]

Efter some 14 or 15 years o experiment, Appert submittit his invention an wan the prize o 12,000 francs in Januar 1810. The same year[3], Appert published L'Art de conserver les substances animales et végétales (or The Airt o Preservin Animal an Vegetable Substances). This wis the first ceukbeuk o its kynd on modren fuid preservation methods[4],[5]

Bouteille à conserve Appert

La Maison Appert (Inglis: The House of Appert), in the toun o Massy, near Paris, became the first fuid bottlin factory in the warld [2], nearly 100 years afore Louis Pasteur proved that heat killed bacteria. Appert patentit his invention an establisht a business te preserve a variety o fuid in sealed bottles. Appert's method wis tae fill thick, lairge-mouthed glass bottles wi produce o ivery description, rangin frae beef, fowl, eggs, milk, an prepared dishes (accordin tae sources). His greatest success for publicity wis an entire sheep. He left air space at the top o the bottle, an the cork wad then be sealed firmly in the jar bi uisin a vise. The bottle wis then wrapped in canvas tae protect it, while it wis dunked intae boilin water an then boiled for as muckle time as Appert deemed appropriate for ceukin the contents thoroughly.

In honour o Appert, cannin is sometimes cawed "appertisation", but shoud be distinguisht frae pasteurization. Appert's early attempts at fuid preservation bi boilin involved ceukin the fuid tae a temperature far in excess o wha is uised in pasteurization (70 °C (158 °F), an can destroy some o the flavour o the preserved fuid.

Appert's method wis so simple an wirkable, that it quickly became widespread. In 1810, Breetish inventor an merchant Peter Durand an aa o French oreegin, patentit his awn method, but this time in a tin can, so creatin the modren-day process o cannin fuids. In 1812 Inglismen Bryan Donkin an John Hall purchased baith patents an began producin preserves. Juist a decade later, the Appert method o cannin haed made its way tae Americae. Tin can mass production wis housomeivver no common till the beginnin o the 20t century, pairtly acause the they wur difficult tae open till the can opener wis inventit. A hammer an chisel wur needit tae open cans till the invention o a can opener bi an Inglishman named Yates in 1855.[2]

Reflist[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Jean-Paul Barbier Nicolas Appert inventeur et humaniste, Royer, 1994, Paris.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Lance Day, Ian McNeil, ed. (1996). Biographical Dictionary of the History of Technology. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-19399-0. 
  3. Gordon L. Robertson, Food Packaging: Principles and Practice, Marcel Dekker, 1998, p. 187
  4. The First Book on Modern Food Preservation Methods (1810)
  5. Nicolas Appert in 1810 was probably the first person ...

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