Nickel

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Nickel,  28Ni
A pittit an lumpy piece o nickel, wi the tap surface cut flat
General properties
Appearance lustrous, metallic, an siller wi a gowd tinge
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart) 58.6934(4)
Nickel in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
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Ni

Pd
cobaltnickelcopper
Atomic nummer (Z) 28
Group group 10
Period period 4
Element category   transition metal
Block d-block
Electron confeeguration [Ar] 4s2 3d8 or [Ar] 4s1 3d9 (see text)
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 16, 2 or 2, 8, 17, 1
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP) solit
Meltin pynt 1728 K ​(1455 °C, ​2651 °F)
Bylin pynt 3186 K ​(2913 °C, ​5275 °F)
Density (near r.t.) 8.908 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.) 7.81 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 17.48 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 377.5 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 26.07 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1783 1950 2154 2410 2741 3184
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4[1], 3, 2, 1[2], -1 ​mildly basic oxide
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.91
Ionisation energies
Atomic radius empirical: 124 pm
Covalent radius 124±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 163 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Miscellanea
Creestal structurface-centred cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic creestal structur for nickel
Speed o soond thin rod 4900 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion 13.4 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 90.9 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 69.3 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin ferromagnetic
Young's modulus 200 GPa
Shear modulus 76 GPa
Bouk modulus 180 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.31
Mohs haurdness 4.0
Vickers haurdness 638 MPa
Brinell haurdness 700 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-02-0
History
Diskivery Axel Fredrik Cronstedt (1751)
First isolation Axel Fredrik Cronstedt (1751)
Main isotopes o nickel
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
58Ni 68.077% >7×1020 y (β+β+) 58Fe
59Ni trace 7.6×104 y ε 59Co
60Ni 26.223% stable
61Ni 1.14% stable
62Ni 3.634% stable
63Ni syn 100.1 y β 63Cu
64Ni 0.926% stable
Decay modes in parentheses are predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
| references | in Wikidata

Nickel is a chemical element wi the chemical seembol Ni an atomic nummer 28. It is a sillery-white lustrous metal wi a slicht gowden tinge. Nickel belangs tae the transeetion metals an is haurd an ductile.

Pure nickel, poudered tae maximize the reactive surface aurie, shaws a signeeficant chemical acteevity, but lairger pieces are slaw tae react wi air unner staundart condeetions acause an oxide layer forms on the surface an prevents forder corrosion (passivation). Even sae, pure native nickel is foond in Yird's crust anerly in tiny amoonts, uisually in ultramafic rocks,[3][4] an in the interiors o lairger nickel–airn meteorites that war nae exposed tae oxygen whan ootside Yird's atmosphere.

Meteoric nickel is foond in combination wi airn, a reflection o the oreegin o thae elements as major end products o supernova nucleosynthesis. An airn–nickel mixtur is thocht tae compone Yird's inner core.[5]

Uise o nickel (as a naitural meteoric nickel–airn alloy) haes been traced as faur back as 3500 BCE. Nickel wis first isolatit an clessifee'd as a chemical element in 1751 bi Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, that ineetially misteuk the ure for a capper meeneral, in the cobaut mines o Los, Hälsingland, Swaden. The element's name comes frae a mischievous sprite o German miner meethologie, Nickel (seemilar tae Auld Nick), that personifee'd the fact that capper-nickel ores resistit refinement intae capper. An economically important soorce o nickel is the airn ure limonite, that eften conteens 1–2% nickel. Nickel's ither important ure meenerals include pentlandite an a mixtur o Ni-rich naitural silicates known as garnierite. Major production steids include the Sudbury region in Canadae (that is thocht tae be o meteoric oreegin), New Caledon in the Paceefic, an Norilsk in Roushie.

Nickel is slawly oxidised bi air at room temperatur an is conseedert corrosion-resistant. Historically, it haes been uised for platin airn an bress, coatin chemistry equipment, an manufacturin certaint alloys that reteen a heich sillery polish, sic as German siller. Aboot 9% o warld nickel production is still uised for corrosion-resistant nickel platin. Nickel-platit objects whiles provoke nickel allergy. Nickel haes been widely uised in cunyies, tho its risin price haes led tae some replacement wi cheaper metals in recent years.

Nickel is ane o fower elements (the ithers are airn, cobaut, an gadolinium)[6] that are ferromagnetic at approximately room temperatur. Alnico permanent magnets based partly on nickel are o intermediate strenth atween airn-based permanent magnets an rare-yird magnets. The metal is valuable in modren times chiefly in alloys; aboot 68% o warld production is uised in stainless steel. A forder 10% is uised for nickel-based an capper-based alloys, 7% for alloy steels, 3% in foondries, 9% in platin an 4% in ither applications, includin the fest-growin battery sector.[7] As a compound, nickel haes a nummer o niche chemical manufacturin uises, sic as a catalyst for hydrogenation, cathodes for batteries, pigments an metal surface treatments.[8] Nickel is an essential nutrient for some microorganisms an plants that hae enzymes wi nickel as an active steid.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. M. Carnes; et al. (2009). "A Stable Tetraalkyl Complex of Nickel(IV)". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 48: 3384. doi:10.1002/anie.200804435. 
  2. S. Pfirrmann; et al. (2009). "A Dinuclear Nickel(I) Dinitrogen Complex and its Reduction in Single-Electron Steps". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 48: 3357. doi:10.1002/anie.200805862. 
  3. "Nickel – Handbook of Mineralogy" (PDF). Handbookofmineralogy.org. Retrieved 2016-03-02. 
  4. "Nickel: Nickel mineral information and data". Mindat.org. Retrieved 2016-03-02. 
  5. Stixrude, Lars; Waserman, Evgeny; Cohen, Ronald (November 1997). "Composition and temperature of Earth's inner core". Journal of Geophysical Research. 102 (B11): 24729–24740. Bibcode:1997JGR...10224729S. doi:10.1029/97JB02125. 
  6. Coey, J. M. D.; Skumryev, V.; Gallagher, K. (1999). "Rare-earth metals: Is gadolinium really ferromagnetic?". Nature. 401 (6748): 35–36. Bibcode:1999Natur.401...35C. doi:10.1038/43363. 
  7. "Nickel Use In Society". Nickel Institute. 
  8. "Nickel Compounds – The Inside Story". Nickel Institute.