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Nickel, 28Ni
Template:Infobox element/symbol-to-top-image/alt
Appearancelustrous, metallic, an siller wi a gowd tinge
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Ni)58.6934(4)[1]
Mass numberNi:
Nickel in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium


Atomic nummer (Z)28
Groupgroup 10
Periodperiod 4
Element category  Transeetion metal
Electron confeeguration[Ar] 3d8 4s2 or [Ar] 3d9 4s1
Electrons per shell2, 8, 16, 2 or 2, 8, 17, 1
Pheesical properties
Phase at STPsolit
Meltin pynt1728 K ​(1455 °C, ​2651 °F)
Bylin pynt3186 K ​(2913 °C, ​5275 °F)
Density (near r.t.)8.908 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)7.81 g/cm3
Heat o fusion17.48 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation377.5 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity26.07 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1783 1950 2154 2410 2741 3184
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−2, −1, 0, +1,[2] +2, +3, +4[3] (a mildly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.91
Ionisation energies
Atomic radiusempirical: 124 pm
Covalent radius124±4 pm
Van der Waals radius163 pm
Colour lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines o nickel
Ither properties
Naitural occurrenceNi: Primordial
Creestal structurface-centred cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic creestal structur for nickel
Speed o soond thin rod4900 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion13.4 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity90.9 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity69.3 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderinferromagnetic
Young's modulus200 GPa
Shear modulus76 GPa
Bulk modulus180 GPa
Poisson ratio0.31
Mohs haurdness4.0
Vickers haurdness638 MPa
Brinell haurdness700 MPa
CAS Nummer7440-02-0
DiskiveryAxel Fredrik Cronstedt (1751)
First isolationAxel Fredrik Cronstedt (1751)
Main isotopes o nickel
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
58Ni 68.077% >7×1020 y (β+β+) 58Fe
59Ni trace 7.6×104 y ε 59Co
60Ni 26.223% stable
61Ni 1.14% stable
62Ni 3.634% stable
63Ni syn 100.1 y β 63Cu
64Ni 0.926% stable
Decay modes in parentheses are predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
| references

Nickel is a chemical element wi the chemical seembol Ni an atomic nummer 28. It is a sillery-white lustrous metal wi a slicht gowden tinge. Nickel belangs tae the transeetion metals an is haurd an ductile.

Pure nickel, poudered tae maximize the reactive surface aurie, shaws a signeeficant chemical acteevity, but lairger pieces are slaw tae react wi air unner staundart condeetions acause an oxide layer forms on the surface an prevents forder corrosion (passivation). Even sae, pure native nickel is foond in Yird's crust anerly in tiny amoonts, uisually in ultramafic rocks,[6][7] an in the interiors o lairger nickel–airn meteorites that war nae exposed tae oxygen whan ootside Yird's atmosphere.

Meteoric nickel is foond in combination wi airn, a reflection o the oreegin o thae elements as major end products o supernova nucleosynthesis. An airn–nickel mixtur is thocht tae compone Yird's inner core.[8]

Uise o nickel (as a naitural meteoric nickel–airn alloy) haes been traced as faur back as 3500 BCE. Nickel wis first isolatit an clessifee'd as a chemical element in 1751 bi Axel Fredrik Cronstedt, that ineetially misteuk the ure for a capper meeneral, in the cobaut mines o Los, Hälsingland, Swaden. The element's name comes frae a mischievous sprite o German miner meethologie, Nickel (seemilar tae Auld Nick), that personifee'd the fact that capper-nickel ores resistit refinement intae capper. An economically important soorce o nickel is the airn ure limonite, that eften conteens 1–2% nickel. Nickel's ither important ure meenerals include pentlandite an a mixtur o Ni-rich naitural silicates known as garnierite. Major production steids include the Sudbury region in Canadae (that is thocht tae be o meteoric oreegin), New Caledon in the Paceefic, an Norilsk in Roushie.

Nickel is slawly oxidised bi air at room temperatur an is conseedert corrosion-resistant. Historically, it haes been uised for platin airn an bress, coatin chemistry equipment, an manufacturin certaint alloys that reteen a heich sillery polish, sic as German siller. Aboot 9% o warld nickel production is still uised for corrosion-resistant nickel platin. Nickel-platit objects whiles provoke nickel allergy. Nickel haes been widely uised in cunyies, tho its risin price haes led tae some replacement wi cheaper metals in recent years.

Nickel is ane o fower elements (the ithers are airn, cobaut, an gadolinium)[9] that are ferromagnetic at approximately room temperatur. Alnico permanent magnets based partly on nickel are o intermediate strenth atween airn-based permanent magnets an rare-yird magnets. The metal is valuable in modren times chiefly in alloys; aboot 68% o warld production is uised in stainless steel. A forder 10% is uised for nickel-based an capper-based alloys, 7% for alloy steels, 3% in foondries, 9% in platin an 4% in ither applications, includin the fest-growin battery sector.[10] As a compound, nickel haes a nummer o niche chemical manufacturin uises, sic as a catalyst for hydrogenation, cathodes for batteries, pigments an metal surface treatments.[11] Nickel is an essential nutrient for some microorganisms an plants that hae enzymes wi nickel as an active steid.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Meija, Juris; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.
  2. Pfirrmann, Stefan; Limberg, Christian; Herwig, Christian; Stößer, Reinhard; Ziemer, Burkhard (2009). "A Dinuclear Nickel(I) Dinitrogen Complex and its Reduction in Single-Electron Steps". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 48 (18): 3357–61. doi:10.1002/anie.200805862. PMID 19322853.
  3. Carnes, Matthew; Buccella, Daniela; Chen, Judy Y.-C.; Ramirez, Arthur P.; Turro, Nicholas J.; Nuckolls, Colin; Steigerwald, Michael (2009). "A Stable Tetraalkyl Complex of Nickel(IV)". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 48 (2): 290–4. doi:10.1002/anie.200804435. PMID 19021174.
  4. M. Carnes; et al. (2009). "A Stable Tetraalkyl Complex of Nickel(IV)". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 48: 3384. doi:10.1002/anie.200804435. Explicit use of et al. in: |author= (help)
  5. S. Pfirrmann; et al. (2009). "A Dinuclear Nickel(I) Dinitrogen Complex and its Reduction in Single-Electron Steps". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 48: 3357. doi:10.1002/anie.200805862. Explicit use of et al. in: |author= (help)
  6. "Nickel – Handbook of Mineralogy" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-03-02.
  7. "Nickel: Nickel mineral information and data". Retrieved 2016-03-02.
  8. Stixrude, Lars; Waserman, Evgeny; Cohen, Ronald (November 1997). "Composition and temperature of Earth's inner core". Journal of Geophysical Research. 102 (B11): 24729–24740. Bibcode:1997JGR...10224729S. doi:10.1029/97JB02125.
  9. Coey, J. M. D.; Skumryev, V.; Gallagher, K. (1999). "Rare-earth metals: Is gadolinium really ferromagnetic?". Nature. 401 (6748): 35–36. Bibcode:1999Natur.401...35C. doi:10.1038/43363.
  10. "Nickel Use In Society". Nickel Institute.
  11. "Nickel Compounds – The Inside Story". Nickel Institute.