Nickel

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Nickel
28Ni
-

Ni

Pd
cobaltnickelcopper
Appearance
lustrous, metallic, an siller wi a gowd tinge
A pitted an lumpy piece o sillery metal, wi the tap surface cut flat
General properties
Name, seembol, nummer nickel, Ni, 28
Pronunciation /ˈnɪkəl/ NIK-əl
Element category transeetion metal
Group, period, block 10, 4, d
Staundart atomic wicht 58.6934(4)(2)
Electron confeeguration [Ar] 4s2 3d8 or [Ar] 4s1 3d9 (see text)
2, 8, 16, 2 or 2, 8, 17, 1
Electron shells of nickel (2, 8, 16, 2 or 2, 8, 17, 1)
History
Discovery Axel Fredrik Cronstedt (1751)
First isolation Axel Fredrik Cronstedt (1751)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 8.908 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 7.81 g·cm−3
Meltin pynt 1728 K, 1455 °C, 2651 °F
Boilin pynt 3186 K, 2913 °C, 5275 °F
Heat o fusion 17.48 kJ·mol−1
Heat o vaporization 377.5 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 26.07 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1783 1950 2154 2410 2741 3184
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4[1], 3, 2, 1[2], -1
(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.91 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 737.1 kJ·mol−1
2nt: 1753.0 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 3395 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 124 pm
Covalent radius 124±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 163 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure face-centered cubic
Nickel has a face-centered cubic crystal structure
Magnetic orderin ferromagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 69.3 nΩ·m
Thermal conductivity 90.9 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 13.4 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed o soond (thin rod) (r.t.) 4900 m·s−1
Young's modulus 200 GPa
Shear modulus 76 GPa
Bulk modulus 180 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.31
Mohs hairdness 4.0
Vickers hairdness 638 MPa
Brinell hairdness 700 MPa
CAS registry nummer 7440-02-0
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o nickel
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
58Ni 68.077% >7×1020 y (β+β+) 1.9258 58Fe
59Ni trace 7.6×104 y ε - 59Co
60Ni 26.223% 60Ni is stable wi 32 neutrons
61Ni 1.14% 61Ni is stable wi 33 neutrons
62Ni 3.634% 62Ni is stable wi 34 neutrons
63Ni syn 100.1 y β 0.0669 63Cu
64Ni 0.926% 64Ni is stable wi 36 neutrons
Decay modes in parentheses are predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
· r

Nickel is a chemical element wi the chemical seembol Ni an atomic nummer 28. It is a sillery-white lustrous metal wi a slicht golden tinge. Nickel belangs tae the transeetion metals an is haird an ductile.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. M. Carnes et al. (2009). "A Stable Tetraalkyl Complex of Nickel(IV)". Angewandte Chemie International Edition 48: 3384. doi:10.1002/anie.200804435. 
  2. S. Pfirrmann et al. (2009). "A Dinuclear Nickel(I) Dinitrogen Complex and its Reduction in Single-Electron Steps". Angewandte Chemie International Edition 48: 3357. doi:10.1002/anie.200805862.