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Nickel,  28Ni
A pitted an lumpy piece o sillery metal, wi the tap surface cut flat
General properties
Name, seembol nickel, Ni
Pronunciation /ˈnɪkəl/ NIK-əl
Appearance lustrous, metallic, an siller wi a gowd tinge
Nickel in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Iron (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Copper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Silver (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercury (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Lead (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)


Atomic nummer 28
Staundart atomic wicht (±) (Ar) 58.6934(4)(2)
Element category   transeetion metal
Group, block group 10, d-block
Period period 4
Electron configuration [Ar] 4s2 3d8 or [Ar] 4s1 3d9 (see text)
per shell
2, 8, 16, 2 or 2, 8, 17, 1
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 1728 K ​(1455 °C, ​2651 °F)
Boilin pynt 3186 K ​(2913 °C, ​5275 °F)
Density near r.t. 8.908 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 7.81 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 17.48 kJ/mol
Heat o 377.5 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 26.07 J/(mol·K)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1783 1950 2154 2410 2741 3184
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4[1], 3, 2, 1[2], -1 ​mildly basic oxide
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.91
Atomic radius empirical: 124 pm
Covalent radius 124±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 163 pm
Crystal structur face-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for nickel
Speed o soond thin rod 4900 m/s (at r.t.)
Thermal expansion 13.4 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 90.9 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 69.3 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin ferromagnetic
Young's modulus 200 GPa
Shear modulus 76 GPa
Bulk modulus 180 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.31
Mohs haurdness 4.0
Vickers haurdness 638 MPa
Brinell haurdness 700 MPa
CAS Registry Nummer 7440-02-0
Discovery Axel Fredrik Cronstedt (1751)
First isolation Axel Fredrik Cronstedt (1751)
Maist stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o nickel
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
58Ni 68.077% >7×1020 y (β+β+) 1.9258 58Fe
59Ni trace 7.6×104 y ε - 59Co
60Ni 26.223% 60Ni is stable wi 32 neutrons
61Ni 1.14% 61Ni is stable wi 33 neutrons
62Ni 3.634% 62Ni is stable wi 34 neutrons
63Ni syn 100.1 y β 0.0669 63Cu
64Ni 0.926% 64Ni is stable wi 36 neutrons
Decay modes in parentheses are predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
· references

Nickel is a chemical element wi the chemical seembol Ni an atomic nummer 28. It is a sillery-white lustrous metal wi a slicht golden tinge. Nickel belangs tae the transeetion metals an is haird an ductile.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. M. Carnes et al. (2009). "A Stable Tetraalkyl Complex of Nickel(IV)". Angewandte Chemie International Edition 48: 3384. doi:10.1002/anie.200804435. 
  2. S. Pfirrmann et al. (2009). "A Dinuclear Nickel(I) Dinitrogen Complex and its Reduction in Single-Electron Steps". Angewandte Chemie International Edition 48: 3357. doi:10.1002/anie.200805862.