Neodymium

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Neodymium,  60Nd
Neodymium2.jpg
General properties
Appearance silvery white
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart) 144.242(3)[1]
Neodymium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium


Nd

U
praseodymiumneodymiumpromethium
Atomic nummer (Z) 60
Group group n/a
Period period 6
Element category   lanthanide
Block f-block
Electron confeeguration [Xe] 4f4 6s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 22, 8, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP) solid
Meltin pynt 1297 K ​(1024 °C, ​1875 °F)
Bylin pynt 3347 K ​(3074 °C, ​5565 °F)
Density (near r.t.) 7.01 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.) 6.89 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 7.14 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 289 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 27.45 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1595 1774 1998 (2296) (2715) (3336)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states +4, +3, +2 ​(a mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.14
Ionisation energies
  • 1st: 533.1 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1040 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2130 kJ/mol
Atomic radius empirical: 181 pm
Covalent radius 201±6 pm
Coloyr lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines o Neodymium
Miscellanea
Creestal structur ​dooble hexagonal close packed
[[File:dooble hexagonal close packed|50px|alt=Dooble hexagonal close packed creestal structur for neodymium|Dooble hexagonal close packed creestal structur for neodymium]]
Speed o soond thin rod 2330 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion α, poly: 9.6 µm/(m·K) (at r.t.)
Thermal conductivity 16.5 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity α, poly: 643 nΩ·m
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic, antiferromagnetic ablo 20 K[2]
Magnetic susceptibility +5628.0·10−6 cm3/mol (287.7 K)[3]
Young's modulus α form: 41.4 GPa
Shear modulus α form: 16.3 GPa
Bouk modulus α form: 31.8 GPa
Poisson ratio α form: 0.281
Vickers haurdness 345–745 MPa
Brinell haurdness 265–700 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-00-8
History
Diskivery Carl Auer von Welsbach (1885)
Main isotopes o neodymium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
142Nd 27.2% stable
143Nd 12.2% stable
144Nd 23.8% 2.29×1015 y α 140Ce
145Nd 8.3% stable
146Nd 17.2% stable
148Nd 5.8% stable
150Nd 5.6% 6.7×1018 y ββ 150Sm
| references | in Wikidata

Neodymium is a chemical element wi the seembol Nd an atomic nummer 60. It is a saft sillery metal that tarnishes in air. Neodymium wis discovered in 1885 bi the Austrian chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach. It is present in signeeficant quantities in the ore minerals monazite an bastnäsite. Neodymium is nae foond naiturally in metallic furm or unmixed wi ither lanthanides, an it is uisually refined for general uise. Altho neodymium is classed as a "rare yird", it is a fairly common element, na rarer nor cobalt, nickel, an copper, an is widely distributit in the Yird's crust.[4] Maist o the warld's neodymium is mined in Cheenae.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Meija, J.; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. 
  2. Gschneidner, K. A.; Eyring, L. (1978). Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths. Amsterdam: North Holland. ISBN 0444850228. 
  3. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 
  4. See Abundances o the elements (data page)