Neodymium

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Neodymium,  60Nd
Neodymium2.jpg
General properties
Name, seembol neodymium, Nd
Pronunciation /ˌn.ɵˈdɪmiəm/
NEE-o-DIM-ee-əm
Appearance silvery white
Neodymium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Iron (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Copper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Silver (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercury (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Lead (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)
-

Nd

U
praseodymiumneodymiumpromethium
Atomic nummer 60
Staundart atomic wicht (Ar) 144.242
Element category   lanthanide
Group, block group n/a, f-block
Period period 6
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f4 6s2
per shell
2, 8, 18, 22, 8, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 1297 K ​(1024 °C, ​1875 °F)
Boilin pynt 3347 K ​(3074 °C, ​5565 °F)
Density near r.t. 7.01 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 6.89 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 7.14 kJ/mol
Heat o 289 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 27.45 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1595 1774 1998 (2296) (2715) (3336)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states

3, 2, 1

(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.14
Atomic radius empirical: 181 pm
Covalent radius 201±6 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structur hexagonal
Hexagonal crystal structure for neodymium
Speed o soond thin rod 2330 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (α, poly) 9.6 µm/(m·K)
Thermal conductivity 16.5 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (α, poly) 643 n Ω·m
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic, antiferromagnetic ablo 20 K[1]
Young's modulus (α form) 41.4 GPa
Shear modulus (α form) 16.3 GPa
Bulk modulus (α form) 31.8 GPa
Poisson ratio (α form) 0.281
Vickers haurdness 343 MPa
Brinell haurdness 265 MPa
CAS Registry Nummer 7440-00-8
History
Discovery Carl Auer von Welsbach (1885)
Maist stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o neodymium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
142Nd 27.2% - (SF) <53.264
143Nd 12.2% - (α) 0.5214 139Ce
144Nd 23.8% 2.29×1015 y α 1.905 140Ce
145Nd 8.3% >6×1016 y (α) 1.5784 141Ce
146Nd 17.2% - (α) 1.1822 142Ce
(ββ) 0.0702 146Sm
148Nd 5.7% >3.0×1018 y (α) 0.5986 144Ce
(ββ) 1.9288 148Sm
150Nd 5.6% 6.7×1018 y ββ 3.367 150Sm
Decay modes in parentheses are predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
· references

Neodymium is a chemical element wi the seembol Nd an atomic nummer 60. It is a saft sillery metal that tarnishes in air. Neodymium wis discovered in 1885 bi the Austrian chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach. It is present in signeeficant quantities in the ore minerals monazite an bastnäsite. Neodymium is nae foond naiturally in metallic furm or unmixed wi ither lanthanides, an it is usually refined for general uise. Altho neodymium is classed as a "rare yird", it is a fairly common element, na rarer nor cobalt, nickel, an copper, an is widely distributit in the Yird's crust.[2] Maist o the warld's neodymium is mined in Cheenae.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Gschneidner, K. A.; Eyring, L. (1978). Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths. Amsterdam: North Holland. ISBN 0444850228. 
  2. See Abundances o the elements (data page)