Neodymium

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Neodymium,  60Nd
Neodymium2.jpg
General properties
Appearancesilvery white
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart)144.242(3)[1]
Neodymium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium


Nd

U
praseodymiumneodymiumpromethium
Atomic nummer (Z)60
Groupgroup n/a
Periodperiod 6
Element category  lanthanide
Blockf-block
Electron confeeguration[Xe] 4f4 6s2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 22, 8, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP)solid
Meltin pynt1297 K ​(1024 °C, ​1875 °F)
Bylin pynt3347 K ​(3074 °C, ​5565 °F)
Density (near r.t.)7.01 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)6.89 g/cm3
Heat o fusion7.14 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation289 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity27.45 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1595 1774 1998 (2296) (2715) (3336)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states+4, +3, +2 ​(a mildly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.14
Ionisation energies
  • 1st: 533.1 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1040 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2130 kJ/mol
Atomic radiusempirical: 181 pm
Covalent radius201±6 pm
Coloyr lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines o Neodymium
Miscellanea
Creestal structur ​dooble hexagonal close packed
[[File:dooble hexagonal close packed|50px|alt=Dooble hexagonal close packed creestal structur for neodymium|Dooble hexagonal close packed creestal structur for neodymium]]
Speed o soond thin rod2330 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansionα, poly: 9.6 µm/(m·K) (at r.t.)
Thermal conductivity16.5 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivityα, poly: 643 nΩ·m
Magnetic orderinparamagnetic, antiferromagnetic ablo 20 K[2]
Magnetic susceptibility+5628.0·10−6 cm3/mol (287.7 K)[3]
Young's modulusα form: 41.4 GPa
Shear modulusα form: 16.3 GPa
Bouk modulusα form: 31.8 GPa
Poisson ratioα form: 0.281
Vickers haurdness345–745 MPa
Brinell haurdness265–700 MPa
CAS Nummer7440-00-8
History
DiskiveryCarl Auer von Welsbach (1885)
Main isotopes o neodymium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
142Nd 27.2% stable
143Nd 12.2% stable
144Nd 23.8% 2.29×1015 y α 140Ce
145Nd 8.3% stable
146Nd 17.2% stable
148Nd 5.8% stable
150Nd 5.6% 6.7×1018 y ββ 150Sm
| references | in Wikidata

Neodymium is a chemical element wi the seembol Nd an atomic nummer 60. It is a saft sillery metal that tarnishes in air. Neodymium wis discovered in 1885 bi the Austrian chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach. It is present in signeeficant quantities in the ore minerals monazite an bastnäsite. Neodymium is nae foond naiturally in metallic furm or unmixed wi ither lanthanides, an it is uisually refined for general uise. Altho neodymium is classed as a "rare yird", it is a fairly common element, na rarer nor cobalt, nickel, an copper, an is widely distributit in the Yird's crust.[4] Maist o the warld's neodymium is mined in Cheenae.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Meija, J.; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. 
  2. Gschneidner, K. A.; Eyring, L. (1978). Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths. Amsterdam: North Holland. ISBN 0444850228. 
  3. Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4. 
  4. See Abundances o the elements (data page)