Naphthalene

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Naphthalene
Skeletal formula an nummerin seestem o naphthalene
Baw-an-stick model o naphthalene
Spacefill model o naphthalene
Unit cells o naphthalene
Names
IUPAC name
Bicyclo[4.4.0]deca-1,3,5,7,9-pentene
Seestematic IUPAC name
Bicyclo[4.4.0]deca-1,3,5,7,9-pentene; Bicyclo[4.4.0]deca-2,4,6,8,10-pentene
Ither names
White tar, Mochbaws, Naphthalin, Moch flakes, Camphor tar, Tar camphor, Naphthaline, Antimite, Albocarbon
Identifiers
Jmol-3D images Image
ChEBI CHEBI:16482 YesY
ChEMBL ChEMBL16293 YesY
ChemSpider 906 YesY
ECHA InfoCard 100.001.863
EC Nummer 214-552-7
KEGG C00829 YesY
RTECS nummer QJ0525000
UNII 2166IN72UN N
Properties
C10H8
Molar mass 128.17 g·mol−1
Appearance White solid crystals/ flakes
Odour Strang odor o coal tar
Density 1.145 g/cm3 (15.5 °C)[1]
1.0253 g/cm3 (20 °C)[2]
0.9625 g/cm3 (100 °C)[1]
Meltin pynt 78.2 °C (172.8 °F; 351.3 K)
Bylin pynt 217.97 °C (424.35 °F; 491.12 K)
19 mg/L (10 °C)
31.6 mg/L (25 °C)
43.9 mg/L (34.5 °C)
80.9 mg/L (50 °C)[2]
238.1 mg/L (73.4 °C)[3]
Solubility Soluble in alcohols, liquid ammonia, carboxylic acids, C6H6, SO2,[3] CCl4, CS2, toluene, aniline[4]
Solubility in ethanol 5 g/100 g (0 °C)
11.3 g/100 g (25 °C)
19.5 g/100 g (40 °C)
179 g/100 g (70 °C)[4]
Solubility in acetic acid 6.8 g/100 g (6.75 °C)
13.1 g/100 g (21.5 °C)
31.1 g/100 g (42.5 °C)
111 g/100 g (60 °C)[4]
Solubility in chloroform 19.5 g/100 g (0 °C)
35.5 g/100 g (25 °C)
49.5 g/100 g (40 °C)
87.2 g/100 g (70 °C)[4]
Solubility in hexane 5.5 g/100 g (0 °C)
17.5 g/100 g (25 °C)
30.8 g/100 g (40 °C)
78.8 g/100 g (70 °C)[4]
Solubility in butyric acid 13.6 g/100 g (6.75 °C)
22.1 g/100 g (21.5 °C)
131.6 g/100 g (60 °C)[4]
log P 3.34[2]
Vapour pressur 8.64 Pa (20 °C)
23.6 Pa (30 °C)
0.93 kPa (80 °C)[3]
2.5 kPa (100 °C)[5]
kH 0.42438 L·atm/mol[2]
Thermal conductivity 98 kPa:
0.1219 W/m·K (372.22 K)
0.1174 W/m·K (400.22 K)
0.1152 W/m·K (418.37 K)
0.1052 W/m·K (479.72 K)[6]
Refractive index (nD) 1.5898[2]
Viscosity 0.964 cP (80 °C)
0.761 cP (100 °C)
0.217 cP (150 °C)[7]
Structur
Monoclinic[8]
Space group P21/b[8]
Pynt group C5
2h
[8]
a = 8.235 Å, b = 6.003 Å, c = 8.658 Å[8]
α = 90°, β = 122.92°, γ = 90°
Thermochemistry
Speceefic heat capacity, C 165.72 J/mol·K[2]
Staundart molar
entropy
So298
167.39 J/mol·K[2][5]
Std enthalpy o
formation
ΔfHo298
78.53 kJ/mol[2]
201.585 kJ/mol[2]
Std enthalpy o
combustion
ΔcHo298
5156.3 kJ/mol[2]
Hazards
Main hazards Flammable, sensitizer, possible carcinogen. Dust can form explosive mixturs wi air
GHS pictograms The flame pictogram in the Globally Harmonized Seestem o Classification an Labelling o Chemicals (GHS)The exclamation-mark pictogram in the Globally Harmonized Seestem o Classification an Labellin of Chemicals (GHS)The health hazard pictogram in the Globally Harmonized Seestem o Classification an Labellin of Chemicals (GHS)The environment pictogram in the Globally Harmonized Seestem o Classification an Labellin o Chemicals (GHS)[9]
GHS signal wird Danger
GHS hazard statements H228, H302, H351, H410[9]
GHS precautionary statements P210, P273, P281, P501[9]
EU clessification Harmful Xn Dangerous for the Environment (Naitur) N
R-phrases R22, R40, R50/53
S-phrases (S2), S36/37, S46, S60, S61
NFPA 704
Flammability code 2: Must be moderately heatit or exposed tae relatively heich ambient temperature before igneetion can occur. Flash pynt atween 38 an 93 °C (100 an 200 °F). E.g., diesel fuel Health code 2: Intense or continued but nae chronic exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury. E.g., chloroform Reactivity code 0: Normally stable, even unner fire exposur condeetions, an is nae reactive wi watter. E.g., liquid nitrogen Special hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Flash pynt 80 °C (176 °F; 353 K)
525 °C (977 °F; 798 K)
Explosive leemits 5.9%[9]
Threshold Leemit Value 10 ppm[2] (TWA), 15 ppm[2] (STEL)
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
2000 mg/kg (rats, oral)
Except whaur itherwise notit, data are gien for materials in thair staundart state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
N verify (whit is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Naphthalene is an organic compoond wi formula C
10
H
8
. It is the simplest polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and is a white crystalline solid wi a characteristic odor that is detectable at concentrations as law as 0.08 ppm bi mass.[10]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Naphthalene" (PDF). http://water.epa.gov. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 2014-06-21.  External link in |website= (help)
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 Lide, David R., ed. (2009). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (90th ed.). Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4200-9084-0. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Anatolievich, Kiper Ruslan. "naphthalene". http://chemister.ru. Retrieved 2014-06-21.  External link in |website= (help)
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Seidell, Atherton; Linke, William F. (1919). Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds (2nd ed.). New York: D. Van Nostrand Company. pp. 443–446. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Naphthalene in Linstrom, P.J.; Mallard, W.G. (eds.) NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD. http://webbook.nist.gov (retrieved 2014-05-24)
  6. "Thermal Conductivity of Naphthalene". http://www.ddbst.com. DDBST GmbH. Retrieved 2014-06-21.  External link in |website= (help)
  7. "Dynamic Viscosity of Naphthalene". http://www.ddbst.com. DDBST GmbH. Retrieved 2014-06-21.  External link in |website= (help)
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Douglas, Bodie E.; Ho, Shih-Ming (2007). Structure and Chemistry of Crystalline Solids. New York: Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. p. 288. ISBN 0-387-26147-8. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 Sigma-Aldrich Co., Naphthalene. Retrieved on 2014-06-21.
  10. Amoore J E and Hautala E (1983). "Odor as an aid to chemical safety: Odor thresholds compared with threshold limit values and volatiles for 214 industrial chemicals in air and water dilution". J Appl Toxicology. 3 (6): 272–290. doi:10.1002/jat.2550030603.