Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation o matter on an atomic, molecular, an supramolecular scale. The earliest, widespread description o nanotechnology referred tae the pairteecular technological goal o precisely manipulatin atoms an molecules for fabrication o macroscale products, an aa nou referred tae as molecular nanotechnology. A mair generalised description o nanotechnology wis subsequently established bi the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation o matter wi at least ane dimension sized frae 1 tae 100 nanometers. This defineetion reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale, an sae the defineetion shiftit frae a pairteecular technological goal tae a resairch category inclusive o aw teeps o resairch an technologies that deal wi the special properties o matter which occur ablo the gien size threshauld. It is tharefore common tae see the plural form "nanotechnologies" as well as "nanoscale technologies" tae refer tae the broad range o resairch an applications whase common trait is size. Acause o the variety o potential applications (includin industrial an militar), govrenments hae investit billions o dollars in nanotechnology resairch. Till 2012, throu its National Nanotechnology Initiative, the USA haes investit 3.7 billion dollars, the European Union haes investit 1.2 billion an Japan 750 million dollars.
Nanotechnology as defined bi size is naiturally very broad, includin fields o science as diverse as surface science, organic chemistry, molecular biology, semiconductor physics, microfabrication, molecular ingineerin, etc. The associatit resairch an applications are equally diverse, rangin frae extensions o conventional device pheesics tae completely new approaches based upon molecular sel-assembly, frae developin new materials wi dimensions on the nanoscale tae direct control o matter on the atomic scale.
Scientists currently debate the futur implications o nanotechnology. Nanotechnology mey be able tae create mony new materials an devices wi a vast range o applications, such as in nanomedicine, nanoelectronics, biomaterials energy production, an consumer products. On the ither hand, nanotechnology raises mony o the same issues as ony new technology, includin concerns aboot the toxicity an environmental impact o nanomaterials, an thair potential effects on global economics, as well as speculation aboot various doomsday scenarios. Thir concerns hae led tae a debate amang advocacy groups an govrenments on whether special regulation o nanotechnology is warrantit.
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Drexler, K. Eric (1986). Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-19973-2.
- Drexler, K. Eric (1992). Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manufacturing, and Computation. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-57547-X.
- Apply nanotech to up industrial, agri output, The Daily Star (Bangladesh), 17 April 2012.
- Saini, Rajiv; Saini, Santosh; Sharma, Sugandha (2010). "Nanotechnology: The Future Medicine". Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery. 3 (1): 32–33. doi:10.4103/0974-2077.63301. PMC 2890134. PMID 20606992.
- Buzea, C.; Pacheco, I. I.; Robbie, K. (2007). "Nanomaterials and nanoparticles: Sources and toxicity". Biointerphases. 2 (4): MR17–MR71. doi:10.1116/1.2815690. PMID 20419892.