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Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation o matter on an atomic, molecular, an supramolecular scale. The earliest, widespread description o nanotechnology[1][2] referred tae the pairteecular technological goal o precisely manipulatin atoms an molecules for fabrication o macroscale products, an aa nou referred tae as molecular nanotechnology. A mair generalised description o nanotechnology wis subsequently established bi the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation o matter wi at least ane dimension sized frae 1 tae 100 nanometers. This defineetion reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale, an sae the defineetion shiftit frae a pairteecular technological goal tae a resairch category inclusive o aw teeps o resairch an technologies that deal wi the special properties o matter which occur ablo the gien size threshauld. It is tharefore common tae see the plural form "nanotechnologies" as well as "nanoscale technologies" tae refer tae the broad range o resairch an applications whase common trait is size. Acause o the variety o potential applications (includin industrial an militar), govrenments hae investit billions o dollars in nanotechnology resairch. Till 2012, throu its National Nanotechnology Initiative, the USA haes investit 3.7 billion dollars, the European Union haes investit 1.2 billion an Japan 750 million dollars.[3]

Nanotechnology as defined bi size is naiturally very broad, includin fields o science as diverse as surface science, organic chemistry, molecular biology, semiconductor physics, microfabrication, molecular ingineerin, etc.[4] The associatit resairch an applications are equally diverse, rangin frae extensions o conventional device pheesics tae completely new approaches based upon molecular sel-assembly, frae developin new materials wi dimensions on the nanoscale tae direct control o matter on the atomic scale.

Scientists currently debate the futur implications o nanotechnology. Nanotechnology mey be able tae create mony new materials an devices wi a vast range o applications, such as in nanomedicine, nanoelectronics, biomaterials energy production, an consumer products. On the ither hand, nanotechnology raises mony o the same issues as ony new technology, includin concerns aboot the toxicity an environmental impact o nanomaterials,[5] an thair potential effects on global economics, as well as speculation aboot various doomsday scenarios. Thir concerns hae led tae a debate amang advocacy groups an govrenments on whether special regulation o nanotechnology is warrantit.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Drexler, K. Eric (1986). Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-19973-2.
  2. Drexler, K. Eric (1992). Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manufacturing, and Computation. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-57547-X.
  3. Apply nanotech to up industrial, agri output, The Daily Star (Bangladesh), 17 April 2012.
  4. Saini, Rajiv; Saini, Santosh; Sharma, Sugandha (2010). "Nanotechnology: The Future Medicine". Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery. 3 (1): 32–33. doi:10.4103/0974-2077.63301. PMC 2890134. PMID 20606992.
  5. Buzea, C.; Pacheco, I. I.; Robbie, K. (2007). "Nanomaterials and nanoparticles: Sources and toxicity". Biointerphases. 2 (4): MR17–MR71. doi:10.1116/1.2815690. PMID 20419892.