Museum o Anatolie Ceevilisations
|Location||Gözcü Street No:2 06240 Ulus, Ankara, Turkey|
The Museum o Anatolie Ceevilisations (Turkis: Anadolu Medeniyetleri Müzesi) is locatit on the sooth side of Ankara Castle in the Atpazarı aurie in Ankara, Turkey. It conseests of the auld Ottoman Mahmut Paşa bazaar storage biggin, and the Kurşunlu Han. Because of Atatürk's desire tae establish a Hittite museum, the buildings were bought upon the suggestion of Hamit Zübeyir Koşay, who wis then Culture Meenister, tae the Naitional Eddication Meenister, Saffet Arıkan. Efter the remodelling and repairs were completit (1938–1968), the building wis opened tae the public as the Ankara Airchaeological Museum.
Today, Kurşunlu Han, uised as an admeenistrative biggin, houses the work rooms, library, conference hall, laboratory and workshop. The auld bazaar building houses the exhibits. Within this Ottoman building, the museum haes a nummer of exhibits of Anatolian aircaheology. They stairt with the Paleolithic era, and continue chronologically through the Neolithic, Early Bronze, Assyrian trading colonies, Hittite, Phrygian, Urartian, Greek, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, Seljuq and Ottoman periods. There is awso an extensive collection of airtifacts frae the excavations at Karain, Çatalhöyük, Hacılar, Canhasan, Beyce Sultan, Alacahöyük, Kültepe, Acemhöyük, Boğazköy (Gordion), Pazarlı, Altıntepe, Adilcevaz and Patnos as well as examples of several periods.
The exhibits of gold, silver, glass, marble and bronze works date back as far as the seicont hauf of the first millennium BC. The coin collections, with examples ranging frae the first mintit money tae modern times, represent the museum's rare cultural treasures.
Museum of Anatolie Ceevilisations reaching the present time with its historical buildings and its deeply rooted history wis electit as the first "European Museum of the Year" in Swisserland on April 19, 1997.
Table o contents
The histerie of the museum[eedit | eedit soorce]
The first museum in Ankara wis established by Mübarek Galip Bey, Directorate of Culture, in 1921, in the section of the Castle of Ankara called Akkale. In addition tae this museum, airtifacts frae the Augustus Temple and the Byzantine Baths were aqso collected. Upon recommendation of Atatürk and frae the view of establishing an "Eti Museum" in the center, the Hittite airtifacts frae the region were sent tae Ankara and therefore a lairger museum wis needit.
The Director of Culture at that time, Hamit Zübeyir Koşay and Saffet Arıkan, Meenister of Eddication recommendit that the Mahmut Paşa Bazaar and the Inn be repaired and convertit intae a museum. This recommendation wis acceptit and restoration continued frae 1938 tae 1968. Upon the completion of repairs of the bazaar, where the domed structure is, in 1940, a committee chaired by German Airchaeologist H. G. Guterbock arranged the museum.[citation needit]
In 1943, while the repairs of the biggin were still in progress, the middle section wis opened for visitors. Repair projects of this part were carried out by Airchitect Macit Kural and repair work upon tender wis performed by Airchitect Zühtü Bey. In 1948 the museum admeenistration left Akkale as a storage house, and the museum wis in four rooms of Kurşunlu Han the repairs of which were completit. Restoration and exhibition projects of the pairt around the domed structure were prepared and applied by Airchitect İhsan Kıygı. Five shops were left in their oreeginal form, and the walls between the shops were destroyed and thus a lairge location wis providit for exhibition. The museum biggin reached its present structure in 1968. Kurşunlu Han, which haes been uised as an admeenistration building, haes research rooms, a library, a conference hall, a laboratory and workshops, and the Mahmut Pasha Vaultit Bazaar haes been uised as the exhibition hall.
Histerie of buildings[eedit | eedit soorce]
The Anatolian Ceevilisations Museum is in two Ottoman buildings located near Ankara Castle, in the histerical Atpazarı destrict of Ankara. One of the buildings is Mahmut Paşa Bedesteni and the other is Kurşunlu Han (inn, caravanserai).
The Mahmut Paşa Bedesteni wis biggit by Mahmut Pasha, ane of the meenisters (viziers) of Mehmed II the Conqueror during 1464-1471. The biggin does not haeve ony inscriptions. In some sources, it is recordit that pure Angora garments were distributit here. The design of the building is of the classical teep. There are 10 domes covering a rectangle designed tae enclose the location, and there are 102 shops facing each other.
According tae histerical records and registry buiks, the Kurşunlu Han wis built as a foundation (vakıf) tae finance Mehmet Pasha's (Mehmet the Conqueror's vizier) alms giving in Üsküdar, Istanbul. It does nae haeve any inscriptions either. During the repairs of 1946, coins of the Murat II period were discovered. The findings indicate that the Han existit in the fifteenth century. The Han has the typical design of Ottoman Period hans. There is a courtyard and an arcade in the middle and they are surroondit by twa-storey rooms. There are 28 rooms on the ground floor, 30 rooms on the first floor. The rooms haeve furnaces. There is a barn with an "L" teep on the ground floor on west and sooth directions of the rooms. On the north side of the han there are 11 shops and 9 shops on east side and 4 shops facing each other within the garden. The inn (han) wis built by Mehmet Pasha and in 1467 Mehmet Pasha wis promotit tae Prime Meenister (Grand Vizier). Upon orders by Mahmut Pasha the vaulted bazaar wis built. He kept his position until 1470. He haed his mosque, soup kitchen and madrasa in Üsküdar, and his body is buried there.
These twa buildings constituting the museum today were abandoned efter the fire in 1881.
Exhibitit airtifacts[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Palaeolithic Age (....8000 BC): The Palaeolithic Age is representit in the museum by the finds uncovered in the Antalya Karain Cave. Fowk of the Palaeolithic Age were hunter-gatherers who uised stone and bone tools. The stone tools are displayed unner three time categories: Lower Paleolithic Age, Middle Paleolithic Age and Upper and Late Upper Paleolithic Age.
- Neolithic Age (8000-5500 BC) : During this age, the first villages appeared and agriculture began. The airtifacts frae Çatalhöyük and Hacılar, which are twa of the maist important steids of the Neolithic Age, are exhibitit in this section. The collection includes Mither Goddess sculptures, wall paintings, clay figurines, stamps, earthenware containers, and agricultural tools made from bones. The maist impressive pairts of this exhibit are a hunting scene on plaster from the 7th millennium BC, a reproduction of a Çatalhöyük room with wall-moontit bull heids, a Mither Goddess Kybele (later Cybele) sculpture, obsidian tools, wall paintings of Moont Hasan erupting, and wall paintings of a leopard.
- Chalcolithic Age (Copper-Stone) (5500-3000 BC): In addition tae stone tools, copper wis processed and uised in everyday life during this age. The artifacts recovered in Hacılar, Canhasan, Tilkitepe, Alacahöyük and Alişar Hüyük are exhibitit in the museum. The collection includes a lairge collection of stone and metal tools, goddess figurines, seals, and decorative jewelry.
- Early Bronze Age (3000-1950 BC): The fowk of Anatolie amalgamatit copper and tin and invented bronze at the beginning of the 3000 BC. They awso processed the known metals with casting and hammering techniques. In addition tae valuable metal artifacts buried as grave goods in royal tombs in Alacahöyük, artifacts frae Hasanoğlan, Mahmatlar, Eskiyapar, Horoztepe, Karaoğlan, Merzifon, Etiyokuşu, Ahlatlıbel, Karayavşan, Bolu, Beycesultan Semahöyük, Karaz-Tilkitepe are represented in the Auld Bronze Age section of the museum. The Hatti tribes dominate the Bronze Age display. The collection includes solar discs, deer-shapit statuettes, thinner version of female figurines and gold jewelry. Thair is awso a reconstruction of a burial ceremony which emphasizes the religious practices of this auncient fowk.
- Assyrian Trade Colonies (1950-1750 BC): In this period, writing emerged in Anatolie for the first time. Since Akkadian times, Mesopotamians were aware of Anatolie resoorces and riches. As a result, they engaged in broad trade relations, spearhedit by Assyrians and with them they brought in their languages and cylinder and stamp seals which later wis developed intae a writing seestem. Over 20,000 clay tablets, inscribit in Assyrian cuneiform, shed light to this period. Maist of the written documents are concerned with trade, economy, and law. Tin, textiles, and clothes were brought by the Assyrian donkey caravans for the local fowk and these goods were exchynged for silver and gold. Kültepe wis the center of the trade network. As a result, we witness an explosion in the diversity of the finds. Cuneiform tablets, drinking vessels in the shape of saucrit animals like bull, lion, eagle, boar, rabbit, which were used in releegious ceremonies, cult objects, cylinder and stamp seals and their impressions, all kinds of wappens and metal cups of artistic value made of clay, stone, gold, silver, lead, copper, bronze, precious stones and tiles frae the Assyrian trade colonies were discoverit at Kültepe, Acemhöyük, Alişar and Boğazköy. Anither interesting class of finds relatit tae this 200-year period is rhytons of Kultepe, a special group of ceramic airt which constitutes the basis of the Hittite culture.
- Hittite Period (1750-1200 BC): The auncient Hittites' first poleetical union wis established near the crescent of the Kızılırmak River in Anatolie around 2000 BC. The important steids are Boğazköy (Hattusa), İnandık, Eskiyapar, Alacahöyük, Alişar, Ferzant. The highlight of the Great Hittite Empire section is the relief of the God of War taken frae the King's Gate at Boğazköy (Hattusa). Embossed bull figure containers, various fruit bowls and vases with animal shapes, infamous İnandık vase that depicts a wedding ceremony, tablets of govrenment airchives as well as the seals of the keengs, bronze statues of fertility gods, bulls, and deer are ither interesting displays. The exhibit awso includes pictures frae Boğazköy, reconstruction of a releegious ceremony, reconstruction of Keeng's Gate at Boğazköy and pictures frae the excavation at Boğazköy. Ane of the maist important artifacts is the tablet in Akkadian scripts (1275-1220 BC) - a correspondence frae Egyptian Queen Nefertari (wife of Ramses II) tae Hittite Queen Puduhepa (wife of Hattusili III) written efter Kadesh Peace Treaty - the first peace treaty in the warld histerie, datit 1275-1220 BC foond at Boğazköy.
- Phrygian Period (1200-700 BC) : The Phrygians, the so-called Sea Fowk, came tae Anatolie frae the Balkans in 1200 BC. They acquired control ower Central Anatolie and made Gordion their caipital ceety. The finds frae the royal tumulus at Gordion form the majority of this section. The tumulus measured 300 m (980 ft) in diameter and 50 m (160 ft) in hicht. The reproduction of the tomb of Keeng Midas, foond in the auncient tumulus, is also displayed here. Carved and inlaid wooden furniture, hinged dress pins, ritual vessels, depictions of animals such as lions, rams and eagles, the reconstruction of a burial ceremony and the statue of the Mither Goddess Kybele (tae whom the Phrygians worshippit as their main deity) are representit in this section.
- Late Hittite Period (1200-700 BC) : Efter the fall of the Hittite Empire as a result of the invasion of the Phrygians, some of the Hittites muived tae sooth and sooth-east Anatolie and established new states. The maist important steids of this period are Malatya–Arslantepe, Karkamış (Carchemish) and Sakçagözü. The 10-domed old bazaar forming the center hall of the museum houses reliefs and statues frae Neo-Hittite period. The theme of war is emphasized in the reliefs with soldiers and chariots. Awso, rock-cut reliefs portraying the Hittite rulers, the gods of the Hittite pantheon, and statues of powerful animals such as lions and bulls are representit.
- Urartian Period (1200-600 BC) : The Urartuans lived in East Anatolie during the same period as the Phrygians. The maist important Urartian sites are Altıntepe, Adilcevaz, Kayalıdere, Patnos, Van, Haykaberd. Urartians made new advances in airchitecture and mining.
- Lydian Period (1200-546 BC) : The oreegin of Lydian airt comes frae the Bronze Age in which there were relations, friendly or hostile, between their ancestors and the Hittites. Lydians made spectacular progress in the Iron Age, especially frae Gyges period tae Croesus (685 to 547 BC). The exhibitit airtifacts maistly date frae the 6th century BC.
- Classical Period and Ankara through the ages: The collection includes Greek, Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine Period airtifacts such as statues, jewelry and decorative vessels made of gold, silver, glass, marble, and bronze as well as coins with examples ranging frae the first mintit money tae modern times. In addition, there is a section displaying the finds uncoverit recently frae Ankara's surroundings.
Galleries[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Museum Galleries
Hittite monument, an exact replica of monument frae Fasıllar
Chimera with a human heid and a lion's head; Late Hittite period
- MoAC Phryg Cybele.jpg
Phrygian Cybele stauette
Reconstruction of the tomb of Keeng Midas
Bull heads frae Çatalhöyük
- MoAC Jewelry 1.jpg
Piece of jewelry, a necklace
- MoAC Jewelry 2.jpg
Piece of jewelry, a bracelet
- MoAC Jewelry 3.jpg
Piece of jewelry, a mirror
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
Freemit Airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]
|Wikimedia Commons haes media relatit tae Museum of Anatolian Civilizations.|
- Museum's offeecial wabsteid; in the Turkis leid.
- PlanetWare - Museum o Anatolie Ceevilisations
- TransAnatolie.com - Anatolian Ceevilisations Museum
- very lairge private wabsteid; though a user wrote "seems to be a pure "picture gape" gallery - no times, no periods." the site has many pictures with precise captions. Major periods are used to group pictures. For its over 900 pictures highly appreciated by users from Harvard, Oxford, Princeton, do I need to go on?