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Jean-Baptiste Poquelin
Molière Mignard Chantilly.jpg
Portrait o Molière bi Pierre Mignard (ca. 1658)
Born15 Januar 1622(1622-01-15)
Paris, Fraunce
Dee'd17 Februar 1673(1673-02-17) (aged 51)
Paris, Fraunce
Pen nameMolière
ThriftPlay writer, actor an stage manager
Notable warksTartuffe; The Misanthrope; The Learned Weemen; The Schuil for Wives; L'Avare
SpooseArmande Béjart
PairtnerMadeleine Béjart
BairnsLouis (1664–1664)
Marie Madeleine (1665–1723)
Pierre (1672–1672)

Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, kent bi his stage name Molière (/mlˈjɛər/;[1] French: [mɔ.ljɛːʁ]; 1622–1673), wis a French playwricht an actor who is considered tae be ane o the greatest masters o comedy in Wastren leeteratur.[2] His extant warks includes comedies, farces, tragicomedies, comédie-ballets, an mair. His plays hae been translatit intae ivery major leevin leid an are performed at the Comédie-Française mair eften nor thae o ony ither playwricht the day.[3]

Born intae a prosperous faimily an haein studied at the Collège de Clermont (nou Lycée Louis-le-Grand), Molière wis weel suitit tae begin a life in the theatre. Thirteen years as an itinerant actor helped him polish his comic abeelities while he begoud writin, combinin Commedia dell'arte elements wi the mair refined French comedy.[4]

Throu the patronage o aristocrats includin Philippe I, Duke o Orléans—the brither o Louis XIV—Molière procured a command performance afore the Keeng at the Louvre. Performin a clessic play bi Pierre Corneille an a farce o his awn, The Doctor in Luve, Molière wis grantit the uise o salle du Petit-Bourbon near the Louvre, a spacious room appyntit for theatrical performances. Later, he wis grantit the uise o the theatre in the Palais-Royal. In baith locations Molière foond success amang Parisians wi plays sic as The Affectit Leddies, The Schuil for Husbands an The Schuil for Wifes. This ryal favour brocht a ryal pension tae his troupe an the teetle Troupe du Roi ("The Keeng's Troupe"). Molière conteena'd as the offeecial author o coort entertainments.[5]

Despite the adulation o the coort an Parisians, Molière's satires attractit creeticism frae kirkmen. For Tartuffe's impiety, the Catholic Kirk denoonced this study o releegious hypocrisy follaed bi the Pairlament's ban, while Don Juan wis widrawn an niver restaged by Molière. [1] His haurd wirk in so mony theatrical capacities teuk its towe on his heal an, bi 1667, he wis forced tae tak a brak frae the stage. In 1673, in a production o his feenal play, The Imaginary Invalid, Molière, who suffered frae pulmonary tuberculosis, wis seized bi a cochin fit an a haemorrhage while playin the hypochondriac Argan. He feenished the performance but collapsed again an dee'd a few oors later.[5]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Molière". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. Hartnoll, p. 554. "Author of some of the finest comedies in the history of the theater", and Roy, p. 756. " of the theatre's greatest comic artists".
  3. Hartnoll, p. 554. "Author of some of the finest comedies in the history of the theater", and Roy, p. 756. " of the theatre's greatest comic artists".
  4. Roy, p. 756.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Roy, p. 756–757.