Molière

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Jean-Baptiste Poquelin
Molière Mignard Chantilly.jpg
Portrait o Molière bi Pierre Mignard (ca. 1658)
Born 15 Januar 1622(1622-01-15)
Paris, Fraunce
Dee'd 17 Februar 1673(1673-02-17) (aged 51)
Paris, Fraunce
Pen name Molière
Thrift Play writer, actor an stage manager
Naitionality French
Period 1645–1673
Genre Comedy
Notable warks Tartuffe; The Misanthrope; The Learned Weemen; The Schuil for Wives; L'Avare
Spoose Armande Béjart
Pairtner Madeleine Béjart
Bairns Louis (1664–1664)
Marie Madeleine (1665–1723)
Pierre (1672–1672)

Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, kent bi his stage name Molière (/mlˈjɛər/;[1] French: [mɔ.ljɛːʁ]; 1622–1673), wis a French playwricht an actor who is considered tae be ane o the greatest masters o comedy in Wastren leeteratur.[2] His extant warks includes comedies, farces, tragicomedies, comédie-ballets, an mair. His plays hae been translatit intae ivery major leevin leid an are performed at the Comédie-Française mair eften nor thae o ony ither playwricht the day.[3]

Born intae a prosperous faimily an haein studied at the Collège de Clermont (nou Lycée Louis-le-Grand), Molière wis weel suitit tae begin a life in the theatre. Thirteen years as an itinerant actor helped him polish his comic abeelities while he begoud writin, combinin Commedia dell'arte elements wi the mair refined French comedy.[4]

Throu the patronage o aristocrats includin Philippe I, Duke o Orléans—the brither o Louis XIV—Molière procured a command performance afore the Keeng at the Louvre. Performin a clessic play bi Pierre Corneille an a farce o his awn, The Doctor in Luve, Molière wis grantit the uise o salle du Petit-Bourbon near the Louvre, a spacious room appyntit for theatrical performances. Later, he wis grantit the uise o the theatre in the Palais-Royal. In baith locations Molière foond success amang Parisians wi plays sic as The Affectit Leddies, The Schuil for Husbands an The Schuil for Wifes. This ryal favour brocht a ryal pension tae his troupe an the teetle Troupe du Roi ("The Keeng's Troupe"). Molière conteena'd as the offeecial author o coort entertainments.[5]

Despite the adulation o the coort an Parisians, Molière's satires attractit creeticism frae kirkmen. For Tartuffe's impiety, the Catholic Kirk denoonced this study o releegious hypocrisy follaed bi the Pairlament's ban, while Don Juan wis widrawn an niver restaged by Molière. [1] His haurd wirk in so mony theatrical capacities teuk its towe on his heal an, bi 1667, he wis forced tae tak a brak frae the stage. In 1673, in a production o his feenal play, The Imaginary Invalid, Molière, who suffered frae pulmonary tuberculosis, wis seized bi a cochin fit an a haemorrhage while playin the hypochondriac Argan. He feenished the performance but collapsed again an dee'd a few oors later.[5]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Molière". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. Hartnoll, p. 554. "Author of some of the finest comedies in the history of the theater", and Roy, p. 756. "...one of the theatre's greatest comic artists".
  3. Hartnoll, p. 554. "Author of some of the finest comedies in the history of the theater", and Roy, p. 756. "...one of the theatre's greatest comic artists".
  4. Roy, p. 756.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Roy, p. 756–757.