Lignin

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Lignin
Lignin structure.svg
Identifiers
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.029.699
Properties
C9H10O2, C10H12O3, C11H14O4
Except whaur itherwise notit, data are gien for materials in thair staundart state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Lignin or lignen is a complex polymer o aromatic alcohols kent as monolignols. It is maist commonly derived frae wid, an is an integral pairt o the seicontary cell waws o plants[1] an some algae.[2] The term wis introduced in 1819 bi de Candolle an is derived frae the Latin wird lignum,[3] meanin wid. It is ane o the maist abundant organic polymers on Yird, exceedit anly bi cellulose, employin 30% o non-fossil organic carbon,[4] an constitutin frae a quarter tae a third o the dry mass o wid. As a biopolymer, lignin is unuisual acause o its heterogeneity an lack o a defined primary structure. Its maist commonly notit function is the support through strengthening o wid (xylem cells) in trees.[5][6][7]

Global production o lignin is aroond 1.1 million metric tons per year an is uised in a wide range o law volume, niche applications whaur the form but nae the quality is important.[8]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Lebo, Stuart E. Jr. (2001). "Lignin". Kirk‑Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. doi:10.1002/0471238961.12090714120914.a01.pub2. Retrieved 2007-10-14.  Unkent parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  2. Martone, Pt; Estevez, Jm; Lu, F; Ruel, K; Denny, Mw; Somerville, C; Ralph, J (2009). "Discovery of Lignin in Seaweed Reveals Convergent Evolution of Cell-Wall Architecture". Current biology : CB. 19 (2): 169–75. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.12.031. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 19167225.  Unkent parameter |month= ignored (help)
  3. E. Sjöström (1993). Wood Chemistry: Fundamentals and Applications. Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-647480-X. 
  4. W. Boerjan, J. Ralph, M. Baucher (2003). "Lignin biosynthesis". Ann. Rev. Plant Biol. 54 (1): 519–549. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.54.031902.134938. PMID 14503002.  Unkent parameter |month= ignored (help)
  5. (1995, Biology, Arms and Camp ).
  6. Anatomy of Seed Plants, Esau, 1977
  7. Wardrop; The structure of the cell wall in lignified collenchyma of Eryngium sp.; Aust. J. Botany, 17:229-240, 1969
  8. NNFCC Renewable Chemicals Factsheet: Lignin