Frae Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Lignin structure.svg
ECHA InfoCard 100.029.699
C9H10O2, C10H12O3, C11H14O4
Except whaur itherwise notit, data are gien for materials in thair staundart state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
YesY verify (whit is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Lignin or lignen is a complex polymer o aromatic alcohols kent as monolignols. It is maist commonly derived frae wid, an is an integral pairt o the seicontary cell waws o plants[1] an some algae.[2] The term wis introduced in 1819 bi de Candolle an is derived frae the Latin wird lignum,[3] meanin wid. It is ane o the maist abundant organic polymers on Yird, exceedit anly bi cellulose, employin 30% o non-fossil organic carbon,[4] an constitutin frae a quarter tae a third o the dry mass o wid. As a biopolymer, lignin is unuisual acause o its heterogeneity an lack o a defined primary structure. Its maist commonly notit function is the support through strengthening o wid (xylem cells) in trees.[5][6][7]

Global production o lignin is aroond 1.1 million metric tons per year an is uised in a wide range o law volume, niche applications whaur the form but nae the quality is important.[8]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Lebo, Stuart E. Jr. (2001). "Lignin". Kirk‑Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. doi:10.1002/0471238961.12090714120914.a01.pub2. Retrieved 2007-10-14.  Unkent parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  2. Martone, Pt; Estevez, Jm; Lu, F; Ruel, K; Denny, Mw; Somerville, C; Ralph, J (2009). "Discovery of Lignin in Seaweed Reveals Convergent Evolution of Cell-Wall Architecture". Current biology : CB. 19 (2): 169–75. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.12.031. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 19167225.  Unkent parameter |month= ignored (help)
  3. E. Sjöström (1993). Wood Chemistry: Fundamentals and Applications. Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-647480-X. 
  4. W. Boerjan, J. Ralph, M. Baucher (2003). "Lignin biosynthesis". Ann. Rev. Plant Biol. 54 (1): 519–549. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.54.031902.134938. PMID 14503002.  Unkent parameter |month= ignored (help)
  5. (1995, Biology, Arms and Camp ).
  6. Anatomy of Seed Plants, Esau, 1977
  7. Wardrop; The structure of the cell wall in lignified collenchyma of Eryngium sp.; Aust. J. Botany, 17:229-240, 1969
  8. NNFCC Renewable Chemicals Factsheet: Lignin