Latha Taingealachd (Thanksgiving, United States)

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The first Thanksgivin at plymouth, oil on canvas, bi Jennie Augusta Brownscombe, 1914
Observed biUnitit States
CelebrationsGivin Thanks, prayer, Thanksgivin Dinner, spendin time wi family, religious services, football games
DateFourth Thursday in November
2022 dateNovember 24  (2022-11-24)
2023 dateNovember 23  (2023-11-23)
2024 dateNovember 28  (2024-11-28)
2025 dateNovember 27  (2025-11-27)
Thanksgivin at Plymouth, oil on canvas bi jennie augusta brownscombe, 1925 National Museum o Women i the Arts.

Thanksgivin is a federal holiday i the unitit states celebratit on the fourth Thursday o November. It is sometimes callit American Thanksgivin (outside the Unitit States) tae distinguish it from the Canadian holiday o the same name an relatit celebrations i other regions. It began as a day o Thanksgivin an a harvest festival, wi the theme o the holiday revolvin around givin thanks an the main part o the Thanksgivin celebration still bein the Thanksgivin dinner. The dinner traditionally includes foods an dishes native tae the americas, namely turkey, potatoes (usually mashit or sweet), stuffing, squash, corn (maize), green beans, cranberries (usually i sauce form), an pumpkin pie. Other Thanksgivin customs include charitable organizations offerin Thanksgivin dinner tae the poor, attendin religious services, an watchin television events such as the Macy's Thanksgivin Day Parade an the NFL on Thanksgivin Day. Thanksgivin is considerit the start o the Christmas an holiday season, wi the day after, Black Friday, the busiest shoppin day o the year i the Unitit States.

History[eedit | eedit soorce]

The shrine o the first US Thanksgivin i 1619 at Berkeley Plantation i Charles City County, Virginia.

Settin aside time tae give thanks for ane's blessings, along wi holdin feasts tae celebrate harvest, are both practices thon long predate the European settlement o North Americae. The Puritans saw fastin days tae fast an pray for God's favor, an aw as Thanksgivin days tae give thanks tae God for a precious harvest, victory an other joyful times. The Spaingie an the French held recordit Thanksgivin services i whit is now the Unitit States i the 16th century. These Thanksgivin days were celebratit throuch church services an feastin.

The Puritan bi Augustus St. Gaudens, 1904. The "buckle hat" at the top o the sculpture's head, which is now associatit wi the Pilgrims i pop culture, wis fictional; tourists have niver worn such clothes, an na hat has iver been a heavy garment.

The first Thanksgivin 1621, oil on canvas bi Jean Leon Gerome Ferris (1899). The paintin illustrates a common misconception aboot the event thon continues tae this day: the Pilgrims did no wear such clothes, an they did no eat at a dinner table, an the wampanoag are dressit i the style o native Americans from the Great Plains.

George Washington's Thanksgivin Proclamation, 1789 (top) an 1795

By the United States in Congress assembled, PROCLAMATION.

It being the indispensable duty of all nations, not only to offer up their supplications to Almighty God, the giver of all good, for His gracious assistance in a time of distress, but also in a solemn and public manner, to give Him praise for His goodness in general, and especially for great and signal interpositions of His Providence in their behalf; therefore, the United States in Congress assembled, taking into their consideration the many instances of Divine goodness to these States in the course of the important conflict, in which they have been so long engaged; the present happy and promising state of public affairs, and the events of the war in the course of the year now drawing to a close; particularly the harmony of the public Councils which is so necessary to the success of the public cause; the perfect union and good understanding which has hitherto subsisted between them and their allies, notwithstanding the artful and unwearied attempts of the common enemy to divide them; the success of the arms of the United States and those of their allies; and the acknowledgment of their Independence by another European power, whose friendship and commerce must be of great and lasting advantage to these States; Do hereby recommend it to the inhabitants of these States in general, to observe and request the several states to interpose their authority, in appointing and commanding the observation of THURSDAY the TWENTY-EIGHTH DAY OF NOVEMBER next as a day of SOLEMN THANKSGIVING to GOD for all His mercies; and they do further recommend to all ranks to testify their gratitude to God for His goodness by a cheerful obedience to His laws and by promoting, each in his station, and by his influence, the practice of true and undefiled religion, which is the great foundation of public prosperity and national happiness.

Done in Congress at Philadelphia, the eleventh day of October, in the year of our LORD, one thousand seven hundred and eighty-two, and of our Sovereignty and Independence, the seventh.

JOHN HANSON, President. CHARLES THOMSON, Secretary.[1]

On Thursday, September 24, 1789, the first house o representatives votit tae recommend the first amendment tae the new constitution tae the states for ratification. The neist day, congressman elias boudinot o new jersey proposit thon both the house an senate speir president washington tae declare a day o thanksgivin for "the many sign favors o almichty God". Boudinot says thon he "could no think o lettin the session pass without givin the citizens o the unitit states an opportunity tae unite, wi ane voice, i returnin tae almichty god the sincere thanks for the many blessings he showerit on thaim."[2]

As President, on October 3, 1789, George Washington made the followin proclamation an creatit the first thanksgivin day declarit bi the national government o the unitit states o Americae: because it is the duty o aw nations tae provide for aw God-powerful tae acknowledge, tae obey his will, tae be grateful for his benefits, an tae humbly beg for his protection an favor, an for thon reason the twa Houses o Congress requestit a'm a joint committee. "a day o public thanksgivin an prayer proposit tae the people o the unitit states tae be observit bi acknowledgin wi grateful hearts the many markit favors o almichty god especially i enablin thaim tae peacefully establish a form o Government for their safety an happiness.". Now therefore a recommend an assign Thursday the 26th day o November, tae be dedicatit bi the people o these states tae the service o thon great an glorious God, wha is a pleasin author aw guid things thon were, thon is, or will be. Thon we may aw thus meet i givin our sincere an humble thanks tae him, for his kynd care an protection tae the people o this kintra before they came tae be a nation, for the token an many mercies, an tae provide favorable interpositions, which we experiencit i the course an end o the late war, for the great degree o peace, union, an abundance, which we have syne haed, for the peaceable an reasonable manner, i which we were enablit tae establish the foundations o government for our security an happiness, an especially the present ane which is now lately established, for civil an religious freedom hey we are blessit wi; an the means we have o obtainin an disseminatin uisefae information; an generally for aw the great an different favors thon he wad like tae bestow on us.

An also sae thon we may come together i the offerin o our prayers an our petitions very humbly tae the great Lord an ruler o the nations, an beg him tae forgive our national an other wrongs, tae achieve our fou potential, whether i public or private institutions. An relatit duties correctly an accurately, tae render our National Government a blessin tae aw the people, bi aye bein a Government o wise, juist, an Constitutional Laws, carefully an faithfully executit an submissive, tae protect an lead (in particular) aw sovereigns an Nations. Such as showit kindness tae us, an blessit thaim wi guid governance, peace, an harmony. Tae advance the knowledge an practice o true piety an virtue, an tae increase knowledge among us an among us, an generally tae grant tae aw mankind, such temporal prosperity as he knows himself best.

Given under ma hand i the City o New York, this third day o October, i the year o our Lord, 1789.

Às deidh Winslow Homer, Thanksgiving in Camp, fhoillseachadh ann an 1862, Gailearaidh Nàiseanta Ealain
Sgeidse le Alfred Waud de Thaigh Taingealachd ann an campa (an t-Seanalair Louis Blenker) aig àm Cogadh Catharra nan SA ann an 1861
Dachaigh gu Latha Taingealachd, lithograph le Currier and Ives (1867)

Traditional celebrations an solemnities[eedit | eedit soorce]

Carthannas[eedit | eedit soorce]

Bidh dìnnearan acrach a’ tighinn suas taobh a-muigh ionad ealain cleasachd airson biadh Taingealachd an-asgaidh ann an Eugene, Oregon, ann an 2013.

Gu tric gheibh na bochdan biadh aig àm Taingealachd. Tha iomairtean bìdh bliadhnail aig a’ mhòr-chuid de choimhearsnachdan a bhios a’ cruinneachadh biadhan pacaichte agus à tiona nach eil marbhtach, agus bidh corporaidean a’ toirt taic do sgaoilidhean carthannach de phrìomh bhiadhan agus dìnnearan Taingealachd. Bidh Arm an t-Saoraidh a’ fastadh shaor-thoilich gus dìnnearan Taingealachd a fhrithealadh dha na ceudan de dhaoine ann an diofar àiteachan. A bharrachd air an sin, tha e air a phumpadh gu bhith còig latha às deidh Latha Taingealachd Dimàirt a thoirt seachad, comharrachadh air tabhartasan carthannach. 

Biadh an ràithe[eedit | eedit soorce]

Is e prìomh àite a 'mhòr-chuid de chomharraidhean Taingealachd an dìnnear Taingealachd.

Mar as trice is e an Tuirc, mar as trice air a ròstadh agus air a lìonadh (ach uaireannan air a frioladh gu domhainn), an rud a tha a’ nochdadh air a’ mhòr-chuid de chlàran cuirm Taingealachd. Chaidh 40 millean turcaich ithe air Latha Taingealachd a-mhàin ann an 2019. Le 85 sa cheud de dh'Ameireaganaich a’ gabhail pàirt anns a’ bhiadh, thathas a’ meas gu bheil 276 millean Ameireaganaich ag ithe air cearcan na Nollaige, a’ cosg $1.05 billean ris a bheil dùil air turcaich airson Latha Taingealachd ann an 2016.

A' toirt taing[eedit | eedit soorce]

Seirbheis Latha Taingealachd dha buill de Bhuidheann Adhair Arm nan Stàitean Aonaichte, a chaidh a chumail ann an eaglais ann an Cransley, Siorrachd Northampton, Sasainn, 23 Samhain, 1944

Aithreachas agus ùrnaigh[eedit | eedit soorce]

  Tha Latha Taingealachd air a ghabhail a-steach san Liomradh Coitcheann Ath-sgrùdaichte, a tha a’ toirt seachad sgriobtairean airson seirbheisean Taingealachd. Is e seo an inntrig mu dheireadh air a’ mhìosachan liteargach ro thoiseach Advent an ath Dhidòmhnaich.

Ceann-latha[eedit | eedit soorce]

Bho chaidh a shuidheachadh air a 'cheathramh Diardaoin san t-Samhain fon lagh ann an 1941, faodaidh na saor-làithean anns na Stàitean Aonaichte tachairt air ceann-latha sam bith bho 22 Samhain gu 28. Nuair a thuiteas e air 22 no 23 Samhain, chan e an Diardaoin mu dheireadh a th 'ann, ach an dàrna fear. Diardaoin san t-Samhain. A dh’ aindeoin sin, ’s e an Diardaoin a th’ ann ron Disathairne mu dheireadh den t-Samhain.

Leis gur e saor-làithean feadarail a th’ ann an Taingealachd, tha oifisean riaghaltas nan Stàitean Aonaichte dùinte agus tha luchd-obrach uile air am pàigheadh airson an latha sin. Tha e cuideachd na shaor-làithean airson Malairt Stoc New York agus a’ mhòr-chuid de mhargaidhean ionmhais agus companaidhean seirbheisean ionmhais.

November 22 November 23 November 24 November 25 November 26 November 27 November 28
week 47 week 47 week 47 common year week 47, leap year week 48 week 48 week 48 week 48
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Leughadh a bharrachd (sa Bheurla)[eedit | eedit soorce]

  • "American as Pumpkin Pie: A History of Thanksgiving". BackStory with the American History Guys. Virginia Foundation for the Humanities. 16 November 2010. Archived frae the original on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010. An hour-long history public radio program examining the roots of America's Thanksgiving rituals
  • Armstrong, Elizabeth (27 November 2002). "The first Thanksgiving". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 12 Januar 2008.
  • "Of Harvest, Prayer, and Football: A History of Thanksgiving". 23 October 2008. Archived frae the original on 22 November 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  • "Thanksgiving". Archived frae the original on 22 November 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010. Free audio readings of Thanksgiving proclamations by William Bradford, George Washington, and Abraham Lincoln
  • "The Background Leading Up To and Story of the First Thanksgiving". The Council of Seven / Royal House of Pokanoket / Pokanoket Tribe / Wampanoag Nation. Retrieved 26 November 2010. Historical perspective from the Pokanoket Tribe
  • "The First Thanksgiving". Plymouth, Massachusetts: Pilgrim Hall Museum. Archived frae the original on 20 Juin 2010. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
  • T. K. Byron, PhD. "George Washington and the History of Thanksgiving". George Washington's Mount Vernon.
  • Seeyle, John. 1998. Memory's Nation: The Place of Plymouth Rock. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.
  • Baker, James W. 2009. Thanksgiving: The Biography of an American Holiday. Hanover: University of New Hampshire Press.
  • Dunbar-Ortiz, Roxanne. 2014. An Indigenous People's History of the United States. Boston, MA: Beacon.
  • Silverman, David. 2019. This Land Is Their Land: The Wampanoag Indians, Plymouth Colony, and the Troubled History of Thanksgiving. New York: Bloomsbury.
  • Turner, John G. 2020. They Knew They Were Pilgrims: Plymouth Colony and the Contest for American Liberty. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  • Rowley, Matthew, ed., 2021. 'Who Belongs Around Uncle Sam's Thanksgiving Table: Reflections on American History, Identity, and Immigration', The Review of Faith & International Affairs 19.3.

Ceanglaichean a-muigh[eedit | eedit soorce]


  1. Library of Congress (4 Juin 1998). "Religion and the Congress of the Confederation, 1774–89". Library of Congress.
  2. compiled from authentic materials by Joseph Gales, Senior (1834), The Annals of the Congress, The Debates and Proceedings in the Congress of the United States, 1, Washington, DC: Gales and Seaton, pp. 949–950