Scotland in the Late Middle Ages
Scotland in the Late Middle Ages, atween the daiths o Alexander III in 1286 an James IV in 1513, established its unthirldom frae Ingland unner feegurs includin William Wallace in the late 13t century an Robert Bruce in the 14t century. In the 15t century unner the Stewart Dynasty, despite a turbulent poleetical history, the Croun gained greater poleetical control at the expense o independent lairds an regained maist o its lost territory tae approximately the modren borders o the kintra. Houever, the Auld Alliance wi Fraunce led tae the hivy defeat o a Scots airmy at the Battle o Flodden in 1513 an the daith o the keeng James IV, which would be follaed bi a lang meenority an a period o poleetical instability.
The economy o Scotland developed slowly in this period an a population o perhaps a little unner a million bi the middle o the 14t century began tae decline efter the arrival o the Black Daith, fawin tae perhaps hauf a million bi the beginnin o the 16t century. Different social seestems an culturs developed in the lawland an hieland regions o the kintra as Gaelic remained the maist common leid north o the Tay an Middle Scots dominatit in the sooth, whaur it acame the leid o the rulin elite, govrenment an a new naitional leeteratur. Thare war significant chynges in releegion which saw mendicant friars an new devotions expand, pairteecularly in the developin burghs.
Bi the end o the period Scotland haed adoptit mony o the major tenets o the European Renaissance in airt, airchitectur an leeteratur an produced a developed eddicational seestem. This period haes been seen ane in which a clear naitional identity emerged in Scotland, as well as signeeficant distinctions atween different regions o the kintra which woud be pairteecularly signeeficant in the period o the Reformation.