Lysergic acid diethylamide
2D structural formula an 3D models o LSD
|Pronunciation||/daɪ eθəl ˈæmaɪd/, /æmɪd/, or /eɪmaɪd/)|
|Oral, sublingual, intravenous, ocular, intramuscular|
|Biological hauf-life||3–5 oors|
|Synonyms||Acid, LSD, lysergide|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||323.44 g·mol−1|
|3D model (Jmol)|
|Meltin pynt||80 tae 85 °C (176 tae 185 °F)|
Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), an aa kent as acid, is a psychedelic drog kent for its psychological effects. This mey include altered awareness o the surroondins, perceptions, an feelins as well as sensations an images that seem real tho thay are nae. It is uised mainly as a recreational drog an for spiritual raisons. LSD is teepically aither swallaed or held unner the tongue. It is eften sauld on blotter paper, a succar cube, or gelatin. It can an aa be injectit.
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Halpern, John H.; Suzuki, Joji; Huertas,, Pedro E.; Passie, Torsten (June 7, 2014). Price, Lawrence H.; Stolerman, Ian P., eds. Encyclopedia of Psychopharmacology A Springer Live Reference. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 1–5. ISBN 978-3-642-27772-6. Retrieved April 24, 2015.
Hallucinogen abuse and dependence are known complications resulting from the illicit use of drugs in this category, such as LSD and psilocybin. Users do not experience withdrawal symptoms, but the general criteria for substance abuse and dependence otherwise apply. Dependence is estimated in approximately 2 % of recent-onset users in the United States.
- Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). "Chapter 15: Reinforcement and Addictive Disorders". In Sydor A, Brown RY. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. p. 375. ISBN 9780071481274.
Several other classes of drugs are categorized as drugs of abuse but rarely produce compulsive use. These include psychedelic agents, such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), which are used for their ability to produce perceptual distortions at low and moderate doses. The use of these drugs is associated with the rapid development of tolerance and the absence of positive reinforcement (Chapter 6). Partial agonist effects at 5HT2A receptors are implicated in the psychedelic actions of LSD and related hallucinogens. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly called ecstasy, is an amphetamine derivative. It produces a combination of psychostimulant-like and weak LSD-like effects at low doses. Unlike LSD, MDMA is reinforcing—most likely because of its interactions with dopamine systems—and accordingly is subject to compulsive abuse. The weak psychedelic effects of MDMA appear to result from its amphetamine-like actions on the serotonin reuptake transporter, by means of which it causes transporter-dependent serotonin efflux. MDMA has been proven to produce lesions of serotonin neurons in animals and humans.
- "Definition of "amide"". Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved January 31, 2015.
- "American Heritage Dictionary Entry: amide". Ahdictionary.com. Retrieved January 31, 2015.
- "amide - definition of amide in English from the Oxford dictionary". Oxforddictionaries.com. Retrieved January 31, 2015.
- Aghajanian GK, Bing OH (1964). "Persistence of lysergic acid diethylamide in the plasma of human subjects" (PDF). Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 5: 611–614. PMID 14209776. Retrieved September 17, 2009.
- Papac DI, Foltz RL (May–June 1990). "Measurement of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in human plasma by gas chromatography/negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry" (PDF). Journal of Analytical Toxicology. 14 (3): 189–190. doi:10.1093/jat/14.3.189. PMID 2374410. Retrieved September 17, 2009.
- "What are hallucinogens?". National Institute of Drug Abuse. January 2016. Retrieved April 24, 2016.