Khwarazmian dynasty

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Khwarazmian Empire
خوارزمشاهیان
[Khwārazmshāhiyān] error: {{lang}}: unrecognised leid tag: faLatn (help)
1077–1231
Khwarezmid Empire in 1217
Khwarezmid Empire in 1217
Caipital Gurganj
(1077–1212)
Samarkand
(1212–1220)
Ghazna
(1220–1221)
Tabriz
(1225–1231)
Common leids Persie[1]
Kipchak Turkic[2]
Releegion Sunni Islam
Govrenment Oligarchy
Khwarazm-Shah or Sultan  
• 1077–1096/7
Anushtigin Gharchai
• 1220–1231
Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu
Historical era Medieval
• Established
1077
• Disestablished
1231
Aurie
1218 (est.) 3,600,000 km2 (1,400,000 sq mi)
Precedit bi
Succeedit bi
Great Seljuq Empire
Ghurid Dynasty
Mongol Empire
The day pairt o

The Khwarazmian dynasty (IPA: [kwəˈræzmiːən];[3] an aa kent as the Khwarezmid dynasty, dynasty o Khwarazm Shahs, an ither spellin variants; frae (Persie: خوارزمشاهیان‎, translit. Khwārazmshāhiyān "Keengs o Khwarezmia") wis a Persianate[4][5][6] Sunni Muslim dynasty o Turkic mamluk origin.[7][8]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Kathryn Babayan, Mystics, monarchs, and messiahs: cultural landscapes of early modern Iran, (Harvard Center for Middle Eastern Studies, 2003), 14.
  2. Bobodzhan Gafurovich Gafurov, Central Asia:Pre-Historic to Pre-Modern Times, Vol.2, (Shipra Publications, 1989), 359.
  3. "Khwarazmian: definition". Merriam Webster. n.d. Retrieved 21 October 2010. 
  4. C. E. Bosworth: KHWARAZMSHAHS i. Descendants of the line of Anuštigin. In Encyclopaedia Iranica, online ed., 2009: "Little specific is known about the internal functioning of the Khwarazmian state, but its bureaucracy, directed as it was by Persian officials, must have followed the Saljuq model. This is the impression gained from the various Khwarazmian chancery and financial documents preserved in the collections of enšāʾdocuments and epistles from this period. The authors of at least three of these collections—Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ (d. 1182-83 or 1187-88), with his two collections of rasāʾel, and Bahāʾ-al-Din Baḡdādi, compiler of the important Ketāb al-tawaṣṣol elā al-tarassol—were heads of the Khwarazmian chancery. The Khwarazmshahs had viziers as their chief executives, on the traditional pattern, and only as the dynasty approached its end did ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad in ca. 615/1218 divide up the office amongst six commissioners (wakildārs; see Kafesoğlu, pp. 5-8, 17; Horst, pp. 10-12, 25, and passim). Nor is much specifically known of court life in Gorgānj under the Khwarazmshahs, but they had, like other rulers of their age, their court eulogists, and as well as being a noted stylist, Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ also had a considerable reputation as a poet in Persian."
  5. Homa Katouzian, "Iranian history and politics", Published by Routledge, 2003. pg 128: "Indeed, since the formation of the Ghaznavids state in the tenth century until the fall of Qajars at the beginning of the twentieth century, most parts of the Iranian cultural regions were ruled by Turkic-speaking dynasties most of the time. At the same time, the official language was Persian, the court literature was in Persian, and most of the chancellors, ministers, and mandarins were Persian speakers of the highest learning and ability"
  6. "Persian Prose Literature." World Eras. 2002. HighBeam Research. (September 3, 2012);"Princes, although they were often tutored in Arabic and religious subjects, frequently did not feel as comfortable with the Arabic language and preferred literature in Persian, which was either their mother tongue—as in the case of dynasties such as the Saffarids (861–1003), Samanids (873–1005), and Buyids (945–1055)—or was a preferred lingua franca for them—as with the later Turkish dynasties such as the Ghaznawids (977–1187) and Saljuks (1037–1194)". [1]
  7. Bosworth in Camb. Hist. of Iran, Vol. V, pp. 66 & 93; B.G. Gafurov & D. Kaushik, "Central Asia: Pre-Historic to Pre-Modern Times"; Delhi, 2005; ISBN 81-7541-246-1
  8. C. E. Bosworth, "CHORASMIA ii. In Islamic times" in: Encyclopaedia Iranica (reference to Turkish scholar Kafesoğlu), v, p. 140, Online Edition: "The governors were often Turkish slave commanders of the Saljuqs; one of them was Anūštigin Ḡaṛčaʾī, whose son Qoṭb-al-Dīn Moḥammad began in 490/1097 what became in effect a hereditary and largely independent line of ḵǰᵛārazmšāhs." (LINK)