Kenyae Defence Forces
|Militar o Kenya|
|Service branches|| Kenyae Airmy|
Kenyae Air Force
|Commander-in-Chief||Preses Uhuru Kenyatta|
|Defence Cabinet Secretary||Amb. Raychelle Omamo|
|Chief of Defence Forces||General Samson Mwathethe|
|Percent o GDP||5.3% (FY2012)|
|Domestic suppliers||Kenya Ordnance Factories Corporation|
|Foreign suppliers|| Unitit States|
|History||Seicont Warld War (as Keeng's African Rifles) (1939–45)|
Malayan Emergency (1948–60)
Mau Mau Revolt (1952–60)
Shifta War (1963–67)
Moont Elgon insurgency (2005–08)
Operation Linda Nchi (2011–12)
War in Somalie (2012–present)
|Ranks||Militar ranks o Kenyae|
The Kenyae Defence Forces are the airmed forces o the Republic o Kenyae. The Kenyae Airmy, Kenyae Navy, an Kenyae Air Force comprise the naitional Defence Forces. The current Kenyae Defence Forces wur established, an its composeetion laid oot, in Airticle 241 o the 2010 Consteetution o Kenyae; the KDF is govrenit bi the Kenyae Defence Forces Act o 2012. The Preses o Kenyae is the commander-in-chief o aw the airmed forces.
The militar is regularly deployed in peacekeeping missions aroond the warld. Further, in the eftermath o the naitional elections o December 2007 an the violence that subsequently engulfed the kintra, a commission o inquiry, the Waki Commission, commendit its readiness an andjuidged it tae "hae performed its duty well." Nevertheless, thare hae been serious allegations o human richtd violations, maist recently while conductin coonter-insurgency operations in the Mt Elgon aurie an awso in the destrict o Mandera central.
Kenyae's militar, like mony govrenment insteetutuons in the kintra, haes been taintit bi corruption allegations. Acause the operations o the military hae been tradeetionally cloaked bi the ubiquitous blanket o "state siccarity", the corruption haes been less in public view, an thus less subject tae public scrutiny an notoriety. This haes chynged recently. In what are bi Kenyan staundarts unprecedentit revelations, in 2010, credible claims o corruption wur made wi regard tae recruitment, an procurement o Airmourit Personnel Carriers. Further, the wisdom an prudence o certain decisions o procurement hae been publicly questioned.
History[eedit | eedit soorce]
In 1907 the idea wis discussed o a White settler defence force. The Kenyae Defence Force wis eventually established unner the Defence Force Ordinance 1928. The Ordinance "made provision for the compulsory registration o aw European males o Breetish naitionality in the Colony up tae the age o fifty years an for thair diveesion intae three classes accordin tae age. Houaniver, those ower fifty caud awso enrol in a fowerth cless." Efter questions wur raised aboot control o wappens an potential settler threats tae the Kenyae Govrenment in 1936, the Force wis disbandit an replaced bi the Kenyae Regiment, furmed 1 Juin 1937.
1896 tae 1900[eedit | eedit soorce]
The Manoj atween 1896 an 1900 saw the East African Rifles deployed in a nummer o campaigns in line wi Breetish colonial policies. In collaboration wi Major Cunningham's Uganda Rifles, expeditions wur organized against the Nandi wha put up a strang resistance. It wis nae until 1906 that that wur subdued. Anither ane in 1900 commandit bi Lieutenant Colonel Hatch, Commandant o the East African Rifles, follaed this. Twa medals wur issued efter these expeditions namely "1898" an "Jubaland 1900".
The East African Rifles awso sent truips tae help Uganda Rifles suppress a mutiny bi Sudanese troops in Uganda. Captain Harrison wha led this expedeetion wis decoratit. Efter bein deployed on this expedeetion, he remained behind tae form the 1st Battalion o the Uganda Rifles. This battalion later became 5 KAR.
In 1901 the Breetish govrenment decidit tae organise aw the existin truips in Central Africae, East Africae, Uganda an Breetish Somalilaund unner ane command. Lieutenant Colonel Manning, an officer in the Indie Corps wis appointit Inspector General for aw the truips an promotit tae the rank o general. Efter the truips based in different pairts o Breetish East an Central Africae territories wur placed unner a central command, the regiment born thereof wis officially designatit "Keeng's African Rifles" on 1 Januar 1902. The composeetion o this regiment wis as follows:-
- The 8 companies o 1 Central African Rifles became 1 Battalion Keeng's African Rifles.
- The 6 companies o 2 Central African Rifles became 2 Battalion Keeng's African Rifles.
- The 7 companies and one camel company of East African Rifles became 3 Battalion Keeng's African Rifles.
- The 9 companies o the Uganda Rifles became 4 Battalion Keeng's African Rifles.
- The 4 companies o the Contingent o Uganda Rifles became 5 Battalion Keengs African Rifles.
1902–1963[eedit | eedit soorce]
On 1 Apryle 1902, 3 KAR muived its heidquarters frae Mombasa tae Nairobi, an taegither wi 4 KAR an 5 KAR, wis uised bi the Breetish colonial govrenment in expedeetions agin those wha resistit Breetish rule. In 1904 5 KAR, which wis mainly made up o Indie truips, wis disbandit chiefly acause o maintenance costs an awso because the Breetish felt they haed contained the resistance tae their rule. It wis houaniver reconsteetutit in 1916 durin Warld War I an stationed in Meru.
Later in 1926, 5 KAR wis again disbandit an thair colours wur haundit ower tae 3 KAR for safe custody. On 1 Mairch 1930 the unit wis once again reconsteetutit, presentit wi thair colours an stationed in Nairobi. Efter Warld War II baith battalions wur uised bi the colonial government tae contain the Mau Mau rebellion. On the dawn o unthirldom the Kenyae Naitional Assembly passed a bill (Kenyae Bills 1963) tae amend the status o the militar forces in Kenyae .
Accordingly, the umwhile units o the King's African Rifles were transformed to the Kenyan Military Forces and the Independent Kenyan Government was legally empowered to assign names to the units as deemed necessary with effect from midnight, 12 December 1963. Thus 3 KAR, 5 KAR, and 11 KAR became 3 Kenya Rifles, 5 Kenya Rifles, and 11 Kenya Rifles respectively. The transformation of King's African Rifles to Kenya Military Forces on the midnight of 12 December 1963 was a major milestone in the foundation of today's Kenya Army units.
1963–present[eedit | eedit soorce]
On the evening of 24 January 1964, the failure of the Kenyan Prime Minister to appear on television, where 11th Kenya Rifles junior soldiers had been expecting a televised speech and hoping for a pay rise announcement, caused the men to mutiny. Parsons says it is possible that the speech was only broadcast on the radio in the Nakuru area where Lanet Barracks, home of the battalion, was located. Kenyatta's government held two separate courts-martial for 43 soldiers.
In the aftermath of the mutiny and following courts-martial, the 11th Kenya Rifles was disbanded. A new battalion, 1st Kenya Rifles, was created entirely from 340 Lanet soldiers who had been cleared of participation in the mutiny by the Kenyan Criminal Investigations Division (CID). Hornsby writes that after the mutiny, '[Kenyatta] improved conditions, announced pay rises to the military, speeded Africanisation, and instructed the intelligence services to infiltrate and watch the army for signs of disaffection.' (Hornsby, quote, 98.)
Discussions began in March 1964 between Kenya and Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations Duncan Sandys on defence, and a formal agreement was signed on 3 June 1964. All British troops would leave by 12 December 1964, the British would assist the army, resource and train a new Kenya Air Force, and create a new Kenya Navy. They would also provide RAF and Army units to support internal security in the north-east. Significant military loans would be cancelled, and much military property made over to the Kenyan Government. In return, British aircraft would be able to transit through Kenya, RN ships of the Far East Fleet and other units could visit Mombasa, communications facilities could be used until 1966, and troops could exercise in Kenya twice a year. Army training deployments have continued up until 2015, as of 2015 supervised by British Army Training Unit Kenya.
Timothy Parsons wrote in 2002–03:
'..Kenyatta did not have to worry about the political reliability of the Kenyan Army because expatriate senior British military advisors ran it along KAR lines throughout the 1960s. Following the lessons of the Lanet protects, African officers assumed operational command of all major units, but a British training team still oversaw the Kenyan Army for most of the decade. More significantly, an informal defence arrangement with Britain reassured Kenyatta that he could rely on direct British military support in the event of an army mutiny or attempted coup.'
Within months of British Brigadier A.J. Hardy handing over command of the Kenya Army to Brigadier Joseph Ndolo on 1 December 1966, British influence was underlined with the appointment of Major General Bernard Penfold as Chief of the General Staff, a new position as senior officer of the entire armed forces. Ndolo succeeded Penfold as Chief of General Staff in 1969, but was retired on 24 June 1971 after being implicated in a coup plot allegedly organised by Joseph Owino. The service chiefs thereafter reported directly to the Minister of Defence, James Gichuru. The post of Chief of the General Staff was only filled again seven years later when Daniel arap Moi moved Lieutenant General Jackson Mulinge from Army Commander to CGS in November 1978. Mahamoud Mohamed succeeded Mulinge in 1986, and was CGS until 1996. Mohamed was succeeded by General Daudi Tonje, CGS 1996–2000. (Hornsby 554)
The South African Institute for Security Studies wrote when Moi was still in power: "the Kenyan armed forces' reputation as a politically neutral establishment has been undermined by irrefutable evidence of tribal favouritism in the appointment of key posts. In the military (and also the Police and GSU), there is a virtual monopoly of President Moi's ethnic group, the Kalenjin, in the top brass. Of 18 military generals, at least a third are Kalenjin; of 20 brigadiers, 7 are Kalenjin—an ethnic group that accounts for only a tenth of Kenya's population. This obviously works to the disadvantage, especially, of the Kikuyu and the Luo."
From the 1990s the Kenya Army became involved in United Nations peacekeeping operations, which, Hornsby says, 'offered both experience and a source of income for the army and its soldiers.' (The United Nations reimburses troop contributing countries for each soldier contributed.) Kenya's first peacekeeping deployment was to UNTAG in Namibia; from 1989 to 2001, Kenyan troops took part in UNTAG, UNOSOM, UNPROFOR, UNCRO (Croatia), UNTAES, UNOMIL, UNPREDEP in Macedonia (1996–1999), MONUA in Angola (1997–1999), and UNTAET in East Timor (1999–2001). In 2000, women were integrated into the regular units of the military, and the Women's Service Corps disbanded.
In the early 21st century, the Ministry of State for Defence, just like that of Internal Security and Provincial Administration, is part of the presidential machinery. All but senior military officers are appointed, promoted, and, if necessary, removed by the military's personnel system. The president appoints and retires senior military officers. Under the authority of the president as Commander-in-Chief, the Minister of Defence presides over the National Defence Council. The Chief of General Staff is the tactical, operational and administrative head of the military. Under the 2010 constitution, the defence forces can no longer be deployed for combat operations within Kenya without the approval of Parliament.
In October 2011, following a weekend preparatory meeting between Kenyan and Somali military officials in the town of Dhobley, Kenya Army units crossed the border to begin Operation Linda Nchi against the Al-Shabaab group of insurgents in southern Somalia. The coordinated mission was officially led by the Somali Transitional Federal Government forces, with the Kenyan troops providing a support role. In reality, Kenya had coordinated with the transitional government in Mogadishu, and with the Somali militias in the border areas, but the drive on Kismayu was run by the KDF. In early June 2012, Kenyan forces were formally integrated into AMISOM.
As of August 2012 Major General Maurice Oyugi is the army vice commander.
Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]
- IISS Military Balance 2012, 438.
- "KDF gets Sh2.5bn for pay raise".
- Ministry of Defence. "Kenya Defence Forces Act – No. 25 of 2012" (PDF). National Council for Law Reporting. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- "Microsoft Word - ~8860467.doc" (PDF). Archived frae the oreeginal on 20 December 2008. Retrieved 10 July 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unkent (link)
- "MT. ELGON: POLICE ACTION IS AN AFFRONT TO THE, POWERS AND MANDATE OF KNCHR, A VIOLATION OF THE LAW AND AN ATTEMPT TO COVER UP THE TORTURE IN MT. ELGON" (PDF). Archived frae the oreeginal (PDF) on 14 February 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2017.
- "Security men accused of torture and rape – Daily Nation". Nation.co.ke. 1 November 2008. Retrieved 10 July 2017.
- "Activists give military 5 days to re-admit recruit :: Kenya – The Standard". Standardmedia.co.ke. 1 November 2010. Retrieved 10 July 2017.
- "Sh1.6 billion tender scandal rocks DoD :: Kenya – The Standard". Standardmedia.co.ke. 25 October 2010. Retrieved 10 July 2017.
- "Kenya's 'new' fighter jets cannot take off :: Kenya – The Standard". Standardmedia.co.ke. 31 October 2010. Retrieved 10 July 2017.
- "Kenya Regiment Association - About".
- Bruce Baker, Escape from Domination in Africa: Political Disengagement & Its Consequences, (Africa World Press: 2003), p.83
- Timothy Parsons, The 1964 Army Mutinies and the Making of Modern East Africa, 120.
- Parsons, The 1964 Army Mutinies, 161.
- Hornsby, 98–99.
- Timothy Parsons, The 1964 Army Mutinies and the Making of Modern East Africa, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003, ISBN 0325070687, 169.
- Hornsby, Charles (2012). Kenya: A History Since Independence. London/New York: I. B. Tauris. p. 180. ISBN 978-1-84885-886-2.
- Hornsby, 228–229.
- Hornsby, 335–336.
- "Archived copy". Archived frae the oreeginal on 16 June 2008. Retrieved 30 September 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as teetle (link)
- Hornsby, 554.
- Dr. Vince Sinning. "PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS: Kenya Mission to the United Nations in New York, USA". Archived frae the oreeginal on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 10 July 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unkent (link)
- "Kenya launches offensive in Somalia". Reuters. 16 October 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- "Joint Communique – Operation Linda Nchi". Kenya High Commission, Tanzania. Archived frae the oreeginal on 14 October 2013. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
- "Kenya: Defense Minister appointed as acting Internal Security Minister". Garowe Online. 19 June 2012. Archived frae the oreeginal on 30 November 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- "Major General Maurice Otieno Oyugi & Colonel Hesbon Malwey…". Flickr. 29 August 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2017.
References[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Charles Hornsby, (2012). Kenya: A History Since Independence. London/New York: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84885-886-2.
Further reading[eedit | eedit soorce]
- Boubacar N'Diaye, The Challenge of Institutionalizing Civilian Control: Botswana, Ivory Coast, and Kenya in Comparative Perspective,
Lexington Books, January 2001
- Donovan C. Chau, Global Security Watch: Kenya, Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2010.
- Irving Kaplan, Area Handbook for Kenya, American University (Washington, D.C.). Foreign Area Studies, United States. Dept. of the Army, for sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976.
- Timothy Parsons, 'The 1964 Army Mutinies and the Making of Modern East Africa,' Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003, ISBN 0325070687.
- David A. Percox, Britain, Kenya and the cold war: imperial defence, colonial security and decolonisation, Volume 13 of International library of African studies, Tauris Academic Studies, I.B.Tauris, 2004, ISBN 1-85043-460-3, ISBN 978-1-85043-460-3