Josip Broz Tito

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Josip Broz Tito

Josip Broz Tito uniform portrait.jpg
1st Preses o Yugoslavie
In office
14 Januar 1953 – 4 Mey 1980
Prime MeenisterHimsel (1953–63)
Petar Stambolić (1963–67)
Mika Špiljak (1967–69)
Mitja Ribičič (1969–71)
Džemal Bijedić (1971–77)
Veselin Đuranović (1977–80)
Precedit biIvan Ribar
(as Preses o the Presidency o the Fowk's Assembly)
Succeedit biLazar Koliševski
(as Preses o the Presidency)
23rd Prime Meenister o Yugoslavie
In office
2 November 1944 – 29 Juin 1963
PresesIvan Ribar (1945–53)
Himsel (1953–63)
Precedit biIvan Šubašić
Succeedit biPetar Stambolić
1st Secretar-General o the Non-Aligned Muivment
In office
1 September 1961 – 5 October 1964
Precedit biPoseetion creatit
Succeedit biGamal Abdel Nasser
1st Federal Secretar o Naitional Defense
In office
7 Mairch 1945 – 14 Januar 1953
Prime MeenisterHimsel
Precedit biPoseetion creatit
Succeedit biIvan Gošnjak
4t Preses o the League o Communists o Yugoslavie
In office
Mairch 1939 – 4 Mey 1980
Precedit biMilan Gorkić
Succeedit biLazar Mojsov
Personal details
BornJosip Broz
7 Mey 1892(1892-05-07)[nb 1]
Kumrovec, Croatia-Slavonie, Austrick-Hungary
(modren Croatie)
Dee'd4 Mey 1980(1980-05-04) (aged 87)
Ljubljana, SR Slovenie, SFR Yugoslavie
Restin placeHoose o Flouers, Belgrade, Republic o Serbie
44°47′12″N 20°27′06″E / 44.78667°N 20.45167°E / 44.78667; 20.45167
Poleetical pairtyRoushie Communist Pairty (Bolsheviks) (RCP(b))
League o Communists o Yugoslavie (SKJ)
Spoose(s)Pelagija Broz (1919–1939), div.
Herta Haas (1940–1943)
Jovanka Broz (1952–1980)
Domestic partnerDavorjanka Paunović
BairnsZlatica Broz
Hinko Broz
Žarko Leon Broz
Aleksandar Broz
ThriftMachinist, revolutionary, resistance commander, statesman
Awairds98 internaitional an 21 Yugoslav decorations, includin
Order of the Yugoslavian Great Star Rib.png Order o the Yugoslav Starn
Legion Honneur GC ribbon.svg Legion o Honour
Order of the Bath UK ribbon.svg Order o the Bath
Order of Lenin ribbon bar.png Order o Lenin
Cordone di gran Croce di Gran Cordone OMRI BAR.svg Order o Merit o Italy
EthnicityCroat[1][2][3]
Signatur
Militar service
AllegianceAustrick-Hungary
Yugoslavie
Service/branchYugoslav Fowk's Airmy
Years o service1913–1915
1941–1980
RankMarshal
CommandsPairtisans
Yugoslav Fowk's Airmy (supreme commander)
Battles/warsWarld War I
Roushie Ceevil War
Spainyie Ceevil War
Warld War II

Josip Broz Tito (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз Тито, pronounced [jǒsip brôːz tîto]; born Josip Broz 7 Mey 1892[nb 1] – 4 Mey 1980) wis a Yugoslav revolutionary an statesman, servin in various roles frae 1943 till his daith in 1980.[4] In Warld War II, he wis the leader o the Pairtisans, eften regairdit as the maist effective reseestance muivement in occupied Europe.[5] While his presidency haes been creeticised as authoritarian[6][7] an concerns aboot the repression o poleetical opponents hae been raised, Tito haes been seen bi maist as a benevolent dictator.[8]

He wis a popular public feegur baith in Yugoslavie an abraid.[9] Viewed as a unifeein seembol,[10] his internal policies mainteened the peacefu coexeestence o the naitions o the Yugoslav federation. He gained faur internaitional attention as the chief leader o the Non-Aligned Muivement, alangside Jawaharlal Nehru o Indie, Gamal Abdel Nasser o Egyp, an Kwame Nkrumah o Ghana.[11]

Broz wis born tae a Croat faither an Slovene mither in the veelage o Kumrovec, Austrick-Hungary (nou in Croatie). Drauchtit intae militar service, he distinguished himsel, acomin the youngest sergeant major in the Austro-Hungarian Airmy o that time. Efter bein seriously woundit an capturt bi the Imperial Roushies in Warld War I, he wis sent tae a wark camp in the Ural Muntains. He pairteecipatit in some events o the Roushie Revolution in 1917 an subsequent Ceevil War.

Upon his return tae the Balkans in 1918, Broz entered the newly established Kinrick o Yugoslavie, whaur he jynt the Communist Pairty o Yugoslavie (KPJ). He later wis electit as General Secretar (later Chairman o the Presidium) o the League o Communists o Yugoslavie (1939–1980). In Warld War II, efter the Nazi invasion o the aurie, he led the Yugoslav guerrilla muivement, the Pairtisans (1941–1945).[12]

Efter the war, he wis selectit as Prime Meenister (1944–1963), an Preses (later Preses for Life) (1953–1980) o the Socialist Federal Republic o Yugoslavie (SFRY). Frae 1943 tae his daith in 1980, Tito held the rank oMarshal o Yugoslavie, serving as the supreme commander o the Yugoslav militar, the Yugoslav Fowk's Airmy (JNA). Wi a heichly favourable reputation abraid in baith Cauld War blocs, he received some 98 furrin decorations, includin the Legion o Honour an the Order o the Bath.

Tito wis the chief airchitect o the seicont Yugoslavie, a socialist federation that lastit frae November 1943 till Apryle 1992. Despite bein ane o the foonders o Cominform, he becam the first Cominform member tae defee Soviet hegemony in 1948. He wis the anerly leader in Joseph Stalin's time tae leave Cominform an begin wi his kintra's awn socialist programme, that conteened elements o mercat socialism. Economists active in the umwhile Yugoslavie, includin Czech-born Jaroslav Vanek an Yugoslav-born Branko Horvat, promotit a model o mercat socialism that wis dubbed the Illyrian model. Firms war socially awned bi thair employees an structurt on wirkers' sel-management; thay competit in appen an free mercats.

Tito biggit a verra pouerfu cult o personality aroond himsel, that wis mainteent bi the League o Communists o Yugoslavie efter his daith.

Tito managed tae keep ethnic tensions unner control bi delegatin as muckle pouer as possible tae ilk republic. The 1974 Yugoslav Constitution defined SFR Yugoslavie as a "federal republic o equal naitions an naitionalities, freely unitit on the principle o britherheid an unity in achievin speceefic an common interest." Ilk republic wis an aw gien the richt tae sel-determination an secession if duin throu legal channels. Lastly, Kosovo an Vojvodina, the twa constituent provinces o Serbie, received substantially increased autonomy, includin de facto veto pouer in the Serbie pairlament.

Ten years efter his daith, Communism collapsed in Eastren Europe, an Yugoslavia went intae ceevil war.

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Althou Tito wis born on 7 May efter he acame preses o Yugoslavie he celebratit his birthday on 25 Mey tae mark the unsuccessfu 1944 Nazi assassination attempt. The Germans foond forged documents that statit 25 May wis Tito's birthday an attacked him on that day. (Vinterhalter 1972, p. 43.)

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Minahan, James (1998). Miniature Empires: A Historical Dictionary of the Newly Independent States. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 50. ISBN 0313306109.
  2. Lee, Khoon Choy (1993). Diplomacy of a Tiny State. World Scientific. p. 9. ISBN 9810212194.
  3. Laqueur, Walter (1976). Guerrilla Warfare: A Historical & Critical Study. Transaction Publishers. p. 218. ISBN 0765804069.
  4. "Josip Broz Tito". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  5. Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones (13 June 2013). In Spies We Trust: The Story of Western Intelligence. OUP Oxford. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-19-958097-2.
  6. Andjelic, Neven (2003). Bosnia-Herzegovina: The End of a Legacy. Frank Cass. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-7146-5485-0.
  7. McGoldrick 2000, p. 17.
  8. Shapiro, Susan; Shapiro, Ronald (2004). The Curtain Rises: Oral Histories of the Fall of Communism in Eastern Europe. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-1672-1.
    "...All Yugoslavs had educational opportunities, jobs, food, and housing regardless of nationality. Tito, seen by most as a benevolent dictator, brought peaceful co-existence to the Balkan region, a region historically synonymous with factionalism."
  9. Melissa Katherine Bokovoy, Jill A. Irvine, Carol S. Lilly, State-society Relations in Yugoslavia, 1945–1992; Palgrave Macmillan, 1997 p. 36 ISBN 0-312-12690-5
    "...Of course, Tito was a popular figure, both in Yugoslavia and outside it."
  10. Martha L. Cottam, Beth Dietz-Uhler, Elena Mastors, Thomas Preston, Introduction to political psychology, Psychology Press, 2009 p. 243 ISBN 1-84872-881-6
    "...Tito himself became a unifying symbol. He was charismatic and very popular among the citizens of Yugoslavia."
  11. Peter Willetts, The Non-aligned Movement: The Origins of a Third World Alliance (1978) p. xiv
  12. Bremmer, Ian (2007). The J Curve: A New Way to Understand Why Nations Rise and Fall. Simon & Schuster. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-7432-7472-2.