Invasion o Poland

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Invasion o Poland
Part of the European Theatre o Warld War II
Battle of Poland.png
Frae left tae richt: Luftwaffe preparin tae bomb Wieluń, SMS Schleswig-Holstein attackin the Westerplatte, Wehrmacht soldiers destroyin the Pols-German border post, German tank an airmored caur formation, German an Soviet truips shakin haunds follaein the invasion, Bombin o Warsaw.
Date 1 September – 6 October 1939
(1 month and 5 days)
Location Poland, Eastren Germany, an the Free Ceety o Danzig
Result

Decisive German an Soviet victory

Territorial
changes
Pols territory dividit amang Germany, the Soviet Union, Lithuanie an Slovakie. Free Ceety o Danzig annexed bi Germany.
Belligerents

 Germany
Free Ceety o Danzig Free Ceety o Danzig[1]
Slovak Republic (see details)


Soviet Union Soviet Union (Efter 17 September, see details)
Poland
Commanders an leaders

Nazi Germany Fedor von Bock
(Airmy Group North)

Nazi Germany Gerd von Rundstedt
(Airmy Group Sooth)

Ferdinand Čatloš
(Airmy Bernolák)


Soviet Union Mikhail Kovalev
(Beloroushie Front)

Soviet Union Semyon Timoshenko
(Ukrainian Front)
Edward Rydz-Śmigły
(Marshal o Poland)
Wacław Stachiewicz
(Chief o the General Staff)
Tadeusz Kutrzeba
(Airmy Poznań)
Juliusz Rómmel
(Łódź Airmy, Warszawa Airmy)
Units involved
Strenth

Germany:
60 diveesions,
6 brigades,
9,000 guns,[2]
2,750 tanks,
2,315 aircraft[3]
Slovakie:
3 diveesions
Jyned on 17 September:
Soviet Union:
33+ diveesions,
11+ brigades,
4,959 guns,
4,736 tanks,
3,300 aircraft


Tot:
1,500,000 Germans,[2]
466,516 Soviets,[4]
51,306 Slovaks
Grand tot: 2,000,000+
Poland:
39 diveesions (some o them war never fully mobilized an concentratit),[5]
16 brigades,[5]
4,300 guns,[5]
880 tanks,
400 aircraft[2]
Tot: 950,000[Note 1]
Casualties an losses

Germany:[Note 2]
16,343 killed,
3,500 missin,[12]
30,300 woondit
Slovakie:
37 killed,
11 missin,
114 woondit[13]


Soviet Union:[Note 3]
1,475 killed or missin,
2,383 woondit[4]
or:
5,327 killed, missin an woondit[14]


Tot casualties: 59,000
Poland:[Note 4]
66,000 dead,
133,700 woondit,
199,700 tot casualties

The Invasion o Poland, an aa kent as the September Campaign, or the 1939 Defensive War in Poland (Pols: Kampania wrześniowa or Wojna obronna 1939 roku), an alternatively the Poland Campaign (German: Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss in Germany (Case White), wis a jynt invasion o Poland bi Nazi Germany, the Free Ceety o Danzig, the Soviet Union, an a smaw Slovak contingent, that merked the beginnin o Warld War II in Europe.

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Various soorces contradict each ither so the figurs quotit abuin should anly be taken as a rough indication o the strenth estimate. The maist common range differences an thair brackets are: German personnel 1,490,900 (offeecial figur o the Pols Meenistry o Foreign Affairs) – or 1,800,000. Pols tanks: 100–880, 100 is the nummer o modren tanks, while the 880 nummer includes aulder tanks frae the Warld War I era an tankettes.[6][7]
  2. The discrepancy in German casualties can be attributit tae the fact that some German stateestics still leetit soldiers as missin decades efter the war. The day the maist common an acceptit nummers are: 8,082 tae 16,343 KIA, 320 tae 5,029 MIA, 27,280 tae 34,136 WIA.[8] For comparison, in his 1939 speech follaein the Pols Campaign Adolf Hitler presented these German figurs: 10,576 KIA, 30,222 WIA, an 3,400 MIA.[9] Accordin tae early Allied estimates, includin those o the Pols govrenment-in-exile, the nummer o German KIA casualties wis 90,000 an WIA casualties wis 200,000[9][10] Equipment losses are gien as 832 German tanks [11] o wi approximately 236[11] to 341 as irrecoverable losses an approximately 319 ither airmored vehicles as irrecoverable losses (includin 165 Panzer Spahwagen – o them 101 as irrecoverable losses)[11] 522–561 German planes (includin 246–285 destroyed an 276 damaged), 1 German minelayer (M-85) an 1 German torpedo ship ("Tiger")
  3. Soviet offeecial losses – figurs providit bi Krivosheev – are currently estimatit at 1,475 KIA or MIA presumed dead (Ukrainian Front – 972, Beloroushie Front – 503), an 2,383 WIA (Ukrainian Front – 1,741, Beloroushie Front – 642). The Soviets lost approximately 150 tanks in combat o which 43 as irrecoverable losses, while hunders mair suffered technical failurs.[4] Houever, Roushie historian Igor Bunich estimates Soviet manpouer losses at 5,327 KIA or MIA wioot a trace an WIA.[14]
  4. Various soorces contradict each ither so the figurs quotit abuin should anly be taken as a rough indication o losses. The maist common range brackets for casualties are: Poland: 63,000 tae 66,300 KIA, 134,000 WIA.[8] The eften citit figur o 420,000 Pols prisoners o war represents anly those capturt bi the Germans, as Soviets capturt aboot 250,000 Pols POWs themsels, makin the tot nummer o Pols POWs aboot 660,000–690,000. In terms o equipment the Pols Navy lost 1 destroyer (ORP Wicher), 1 minelayer (ORP Gryf) an several support craft. Equipment loses includit 132 Pols tanks an airmored caurs 327 Pols planes (118 fichters)[11]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Danzig: Der Kampf um die polnische Post (in German)
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The 1939 Campaign Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2005.
  3. ER Hooton, p. 85
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Кривошеев Г. Ф., Россия и СССР в войнах XX века: потери вооруженных сил. Статистическое исследование (Krivosheev G. F., Russia and the USSR in the wars of the 20th century: losses of the Armed Forces. A Statistical Study Greenhill 1997 ISBN 1-85367-280-7) (in Roushie)
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 (in Roushie) Переслегин. Вторая мировая: война между реальностями.— М.:Яуза, Эксмо, 2006, с.22; Р. Э. Дюпюи, Т. Н. Дюпюи. Всемирная история войн.—С-П,М: АСТ, кн.4, с.93.
  6. Internetowa encyklopedia PWN, article on 'Kampania Wrześniowa 1939'
  7. Wabsteid o the Pols Meenistry o Foreign Affairs – the Poles on the Front Lines
  8. 8.0 8.1 Wojna Obronna Polski 1939, page 851
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Polish War, German Losses". The Canberra Times. 13 October 1939. Retrieved 17 Januar 2009. 
  10. "Nazi Loss in Poland Placed at 290,000". The New York Times. 1941. Retrieved 16 Januar 2009. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 KAMIL CYWINSKI, Waffen und Geheimwaffen des deutschen Heeres 1933–1945
  12. The encyclopedia of modern war By Roger Parkinson Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-8128-1898-9. Page 133.
  13. "Axis Slovakia: Hitler's Slavic Wedge, 1938–1945", page 81
  14. 14.0 14.1 Bunich, Igor (1994). Operatsiia Groza, Ili, Oshibka V Tretem Znake: Istoricheskaia Khronika. VITA-OBLIK. p. 88. ISBN 5-85976-003-5. 

Bibliografie[eedit | eedit soorce]