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A 19t-century depiction o Galileo afore the Haly Office, bi Joseph-Nicolas Robert-Fleury

The Inquisition wis a group o institutions within the govrenment seestem o the Catholic Kirk whase aim wis tae combat heresy. It stairtit in 12t-century Fraunce tae combat releegious sectarianism, in pairteecular the Cathars an the Waldensians. Ither groups investigatit later includit the Speeritual Franciscans, the Hussites (follaers o Jan Hus) an Beguines. Beginnin in the 1250s, inqueesitors war generally chuisen frae members o the Dominican Order, replacin the earlier practice o uisin local clergy as juidges.[1] The term Medieval Inquiseetion covers thir coorts up tae mid-15t century.

In the Late Middle Ages an early Renaissance, the concept an scowth o the Inquiseetion signeeficantly expandit in response tae the Protestant Reformation an the Catholic Coonter-Reformation. It expandit tae ither European kintras,[2] resultin in the Spaingie Inquiseetion an Portuguese Inquiseetion. The Spaingie an Portuguese operatit inquisitorial coorts ootthrou thair empires in Africae, Asie, an the Americas (resultin in the Peruvian Inquiseetion an Mexican Inquiseetion).[3] The Spaingie an Portuguese inquiseetions focused pairteecularly on the issue o Jewish anusim an Muslim converts tae Catholicism, pairtly acause thir minority groups war mair numerous in Spain an Portugal nor in mony ither pairts o Europe, an pairtly acause thay war eften conseedert suspect due tae the assumption that thay haed secretly revertit tae thair previous releegions.

Except within the Papal States, the institution o the Inquisition wis abolished in the early 19t century, efter the Napoleonic Wars in Europe an efter the Spaingie American wars o unthirldom in the Americas. The institution survived as pairt o the Roman Curia, but in 1908 wis gien the new name o "Supreme Saucrit Congregation o the Haly Office". In 1965 it becam the Congregation for the Doctrine o the Faith.[4]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Peters, Edward. "Inquisition", p. 54.
  2. Lea, Henry Charles (1888). "Chapter VII. The Inquisition Founded". A History of the Inquisition In The Middle Ages. 1. ISBN 1-152-29621-3. The judicial use of torture was as yet happily unknown...
  3. Murphy, Cullen (2012). God's Jury. New York: Mariner Books - Houghton, Miflin, Harcourt. p. 150.
  4. Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith