Indium

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Indium,  49In
Indium.jpg
General properties
Appearance sillery lustrous gray
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart) 114.818(1)
Indium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
Ga

In

Tl
cadmiumindiumtin
Atomic nummer (Z) 49
Group group 13 (boron group)
Period period 5
Element category   puir metal
Block p-block
Electron confeeguration [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 18, 3
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP) solit
Meltin pynt 429.7485 K ​(156.5985 °C, ​313.8773 °F)
Bylin pynt 2345 K ​(2072 °C, ​3762 °F)
Density (near r.t.) 7.31 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.) 7.02 g/cm3
Treeple pynt 429.7445 K, ​~1[1] kPa
Heat o fusion 3.281 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 231.8 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 26.74 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1196 1325 1485 1690 1962 2340
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 3, 2, 1 (amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.78
Atomic radius empirical: 167 pm
Covalent radius 142±5 pm
Van der Waals radius 193 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Miscellanea
Crestal structur tetragonal
Tetragonal creestal structur for indium
Speed o soond thin rod 1215 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 32.1 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 81.8 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 83.7 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic[2]
Young's modulus 11 GPa
Mohs haurdness 1.2
Brinell haurdness 8.83 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-74-6
History
Diskivery Ferdinand Reich an Hieronymous Theodor Richter (1863)
First isolation Hieronymous Theodor Richter (1867)
Main isotopes o indium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
113In 4.29% - (SF)
115In 95.71% 4.41×1014 y β 115Sn
Decay modes in parentheses are predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
| references | in Wikidata

Indium is a chemical element wi seembol In an atomic nummer 49. This rare, very saft, malleable an easily fusible puir hivy metal is chemically seemilar tae gallium an thallium, an shaws intermediate properties atween thir twa. Indium wis discovered in 1863 an named for the indigo blue line in its spectrum that wis the first indication o its existence in zinc ores, as a new an unkent element. The metal wis first isolatit in the follaein year. Zinc ores continue tae be the primary soorce o indium, whaur it is foond in compoond form. Very rarely the element can be foond as grains o native (free) metal, but thir are nae o commercial importance.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Mangum, B W (1989). "Determination of the Indium Freezing-point and Triple-point Temperatures". Metrologia. 26 (4): 211. Bibcode:1989Metro..26..211M. doi:10.1088/0026-1394/26/4/001. 
  2. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.