Indium

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Indium,  49In
Indium.jpg
General properties
Name, seembol indium, In
Appearance sillery lustrous gray
Pronunciation /ˈɪndiəm/ IN-dee-əm
Indium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Airn (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Capper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Siller (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercur (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Leid (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)
Ga

In

Tl
cadmiumindiumtin
Atomic nummer (Z) 49
Group, block group 13, p-block
Period period 5
Element category   puir metal
Staundart atomic wicht (Ar) 114.818(1)
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p1
per shell
2, 8, 18, 18, 3
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 429.7485 K ​(156.5985 °C, ​313.8773 °F)
Bylin pynt 2345 K ​(2072 °C, ​3762 °F)
Density near r.t. 7.31 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 7.02 g/cm3
Triple pynt 429.7445 K, ​~1[1] kPa
Heat o fusion 3.281 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 231.8 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 26.74 J/(mol·K)
vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1196 1325 1485 1690 1962 2340
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 3, 2, 1 (amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.78
Atomic radius empirical: 167 pm
Covalent radius 142±5 pm
Van der Waals radius 193 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structur tetragonal
Tetragonal crystal structur for indium
Speed o soond thin rod 1215 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 32.1 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °C)
Thermal conductivity 81.8 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 83.7 n Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin diamagnetic[2]
Young's modulus 11 GPa
Mohs haurdness 1.2
Brinell haurdness 8.83 MPa
CAS Nummer 7440-74-6
History
Discovery Ferdinand Reich an Hieronymous Theodor Richter (1863)
First isolation Hieronymous Theodor Richter (1867)
Maist stable isotopes o indium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
113In 4.29% - (SF) <24.281
115In 95.71% 4.41×1014 y β 0.495 115Sn
Decay modes in parentheses are predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
· references

Indium is a chemical element wi seembol In an atomic nummer 49. This rare, very saft, malleable an easily fusible puir hivy metal is chemically seemilar tae gallium an thallium, an shaws intermediate properties atween these twa. Indium wis discovered in 1863 an named for the indigo blue line in its spectrum that wis the first indication o its existence in zinc ores, as a new an unkent element. The metal wis first isolatit in the follaein year. Zinc ores continue tae be the primary soorce o indium, whaur it is foond in compoond form. Very rarely the element can be foond as grains o native (free) metal, but these are nae o commercial importance.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Mangum, B W (1989). "Determination of the Indium Freezing-point and Triple-point Temperatures". Metrologia. 26 (4): 211. Bibcode:1989Metro..26..211M. doi:10.1088/0026-1394/26/4/001. 
  2. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Lide, D. R., ed. (2005). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (86th ed.). Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press. ISBN 0-8493-0486-5.