Ibn Khaldun

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Ibn Khaldun
Ibn khaldoun-kassus.jpg
Born27 Mey 1332
Tunis, Hafsid Sultanate o Ifriqiya
Died19 Mairch 1406
Cairo, Mamluk Sultanate o Egyp
Main interest(s)Historiografie
Poleetical science
Notable idea(s)Cyclical theory o Empires, Asabiyyah, Economic Growth Theory,[4] Supply an Demand Theory [5]

Ibn Khaldūn (Arabic: أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون الحضرمي‎, Abū Zayd ‘Abd ar-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad ibn Khaldūn al-Ḥaḍramī; 27 Mey 27 1332 – 19 Mairch 1406) wis a North African Arab historiographer an historian.[7] He is claimed as a forerunner o the modren disciplines o sociology an demografie.[n 1][11][n 2]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

    • "...regarded by some Westerners as the true father of historiography and sociology".[8]
    • "Ibn Khaldun has been claimed the forerunner of a great number of European thinkers, mostly sociologists, historians, and philosophers".(Boulakia 1971)
    • "The founding father of Eastern Sociology".[9]
    • "This grand scheme to find a new science of society makes him the forerunner of many of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries system-builders such as Vico, Comte and Marx." "As one of the early founders of the social sciences...".[10]
    • "He is considered by some as a father of modern economics, or at least a major forerunner. The Western world recognizes Khaldun as the father of sociology but hesitates in recognizing him as a great economist who laid its very foundations. He was the first to systematically analyze the functioning of an economy, the importance of technology, specialization and foreign trade in economic surplus and the role of government and its stabilization policies to increase output and employment. Moreover, he dealt with the problem of optimum taxation, minimum government services, incentives, institutional framework, law and order, expectations, production, and the theory of value".Cosma, Sorinel (2009). "Ibn Khaldun's Economic Thinking". Ovidius University Annals of Economics (Ovidius University Press) XIV:52–57

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/ik/klf.htm#Intro
  2. Ahmad, Zaid (2010). "Ibn Khaldun". In Oliver Leaman (ed.). The Biographical Encyclopaedia of Islamic Philosophy. Continuum. Unknown parameter |subscription= ignored (help)
  3. Doniger, Wendy (1999). Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions. Merriam-Webstar Inc. p. 82. ISBN 0877790442.
  4. Muqaddimah 2:272–73 quoted in Weiss (1995) p 30
  5. Weiss 1995, p. 31 quotes Muqaddimah 2:276–78
  6. In al-Muqaddima Ibn Khaldun cites him as a pioneer in sociology
  7. Savant, Sarah Bowen (2014). Genealogy and Knowledge in Muslim Societies: Understanding the Past. Edinburgh University Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-0748644971. Banu Khaldun al-Hadrami (Yemen, but not Qahtan), to which belonged the famous historian Ibn Khaldun. The family's ancestor was 'Uthman ibn Bakr ibn Khalid, called Khaldun, a Yemeni Arab among the conquerors who shared kinship with the Prophet's Companian Wa'il ibn Hujr and who settled first in Carmona and then in Seville. The Historical Muhammad, Irving M. Zeitlin, (Polity Press, 2007), 21; "It is, of course, Ibn Khaldun as an Arab here speaking, for he claims Arab descent through the male line.". The Arab World: Society, Culture, and State, Halim Barakat, (University of California Press, 1993), 48;"The renowned Arab sociologist-historian Ibn Khaldun first interpreted Arab history in terms of badu versus hadar conflicts and struggles for power." Ibn Khaldun, M. Talbi, The Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. III, ed. B. Lewis, V.L. Menage, C. Pellat, J. Schacht, (Brill, 1986), 825;"Ibn Khaldun was born in Tunis, on I Ramadan 732/27 May 1332, in an Arab family which came originally from the Hadramawt and had been settled at Seville since the beginning of the Muslim conquest..."
  8. Gates, Warren E. (1967). "The Spread of Ibn Khaldûn's Ideas on Climate and Culture". Journal of the History of Ideas. University of Pennsylvania Press. 28 (3): 415–422. doi:10.2307/2708627.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  9. Dhaouadi, M. (1 September 1990). "IBN KHALDUN: THE FOUNDING FATHER OF EASTERN SOCIOLOGY". International Sociology. 5 (3): 319–335. doi:10.1177/026858090005003007.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  10. Haddad, L. (1 May 1977). "A FOURTEENTH-CENTURY THEORY OF ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT". Kyklos. 30 (2): 195–213. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6435.1977.tb02006.x.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  11. Joseph J. Spengler (1964). "Economic Thought of Islam: Ibn Khaldun", Comparative Studies in Society and History, 6(3), pp. 268-306.
      • Jean David C. Boulakia (1971). "Ibn Khaldûn: A Fourteenth-Century Economist", Journal of Political Economy, 79(5), pp. 1105–1118.