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Holmium,  67Ho
General properties
Name, seembol holmium, Ho
Pronunciation /ˈhlmiəm/ HOHL-mee-əm
Appearance sillery white
Holmium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Iron (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Copper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Silver (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercury (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Lead (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)


Atomic nummer 67
Staundart atomic wicht (Ar) 164.93032
Element category   lanthanide
Group, block group n/a, f-block
Period period 6
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f11 6s2
per shell
2, 8, 18, 29, 8, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 1734 K ​(1461 °C, ​2662 °F)
Boilin pynt 2993 K ​(2720 °C, ​4928 °F)
Density near r.t. 8.79 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 8.34 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 17.0 kJ/mol
Heat o 265 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 27.15 J/(mol·K)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1432 1584 (1775) (2040) (2410) (2964)
Atomic properties
Oxidation states

3, 2, 1

(basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.23
Atomic radius empirical: 176 pm
Covalent radius 192±7 pm
Crystal structur hexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for holmium
Speed o soond thin rod 2760 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion (r.t.) (poly) 11.2 µm/(m·K)
Thermal conductivity 16.2 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (poly) 814 n Ω·m
Magnetic orderin paramagnetic
Young's modulus 64.8 GPa
Shear modulus 26.3 GPa
Bulk modulus 40.2 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.231
Vickers haurdness 481 MPa
Brinell haurdness 746 MPa
CAS Registry Nummer 7440-60-0
Discovery Marc Delafontaine (1878)
Maist stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o holmium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
163Ho syn 4570 yr ε 0.003 163Dy
164Ho syn 29 min ε 0.987 164Dy
165Ho 100% 165Ho is stable wi 98 neutrons
166Ho syn 26.763 h β 1.855 166Er
167Ho syn 3.1 h β 1.007 167Er
· references

Holmium is a chemical element wi the seembol Ho an atomic nummer 67. Pairt o the lanthanide series, holmium is a rare yird element. Holmium wis discovered bi Swadish chemist Per Theodor Cleve. Its oxide wis first isolatit frae rare yird ores in 1878 an the element wis named efter the ceety o Stockholm.

Elemental holmium is a relatively saft an malleable sillery-white metal. It is too reactive tae be foond uncombined in naitur, but when isolatit, is relatively stable in dry air at ruim temperatur. However, it reacts wi watter an rusts readily, an will an aa burn in air when heatit.

Holmium is foond in the minerals monazite an gadolinite, an is uisually commercially extractit frae monazite uisin ion exchynge techniques. Its compoonds in naiture, an in nearly aw o its laboratory chemistry, are trivalently oxidized, containin Ho(III) ions. Trivalent holmium ions hae fluorescent properties seemilar tae mony ither rare yird ions (while yieldin thair awn set o unique emission licht lines), an holmium ions are thus uised in the same way as some ither rare yirds in certain laser an glass colorant applications.

Holmium haes the heichest magnetic strength o ony element an tharefore is uised for the polepieces o the strangest static magnets. Acause holmium strangly absorbs neutrons, it is an aa uised in nuclear control rods.

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