Heroin

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Heroin
INN: Diamorphine[1]
Heroin - Heroine.svg
Heroin-from-xtal-horizontal-3D-balls.png
Clinical data
Pronunciation Heroin: /ˈhɛrɪn/
AHFS/Drugs.com entry
Dependence
liability
Pheesical: Very heich
Psychological: Very heich
Addiction
liability
Very heich
Routes o
admeenistration
Inhalation, transmucosal, intravenous, oral, intranasal, rectal, intramuscular
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability <35% (oral), 44–61% (inhaled)[2]
Protein bindin 0% (morphine metabolite 35%)
Metabolism hepatic
Onset o action Within minutes[3]
Biological hauf-life 2–3 minutes[4]
Duration o action 4 to 5 hours[5]
Excretion 90% renal as glucuronides, rest biliary
Identifiers
Synonyms Diamorphine, Diacetylmorphine, Acetomorphine, (Dual) Acetylated morphine, Morphine diacetate
CAS Nummer
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.008.380
Chemical and physical data
Formula C21H23NO5
Molar mass 369.41 g/mol
3D model (Jmol)
  (verify)

Heroin[note 1] is an opioid pain killer. It is an aa used less commonly as a cough suppressant an as an antidiarrhoeal. Heroin is uised as a recreational drog for its euphoric effects. Frequent an regular admeenistration is associatit wi tolerance an pheesical dependence. In some kintras it is an aa gien tae lang-term uisers as a form o opioid replacement therapy alangside coonselin.[8]

Notes[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Synonyms include: diacetylmorphine, morphine diacetate, an diamorphine (recommendit INN,[1] BAN[6]). Heroin is an aa kent bi mony street names includin dope, H, smack, junk, horse, an brown, amang ithers.[7]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Rang HP, Ritter JM, Flower RJ, Henderson G (2014). Rang & Dale's Pharmacology (8th ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 515. ISBN 9780702054976. Retrieved 12 Aprile 2016. While 'diamorphine' is the recommended International Nonproprietary Name (rINN), this drug is widely known as heroin. 
  2. Rook EJ, van Ree JM, van den Brink W, Hillebrand MJ, Huitema AD, Hendriks VM, Beijnen JH (2006). "Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of high doses of pharmaceutically prepared heroin, by intravenous or by inhalation route in opioid-dependent patients". Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 98 (1): 86–96. PMID 16433897. doi:10.1111/j.1742-7843.2006.pto_233.x. 
  3. Riviello, Ralph J. (2010). Manual of forensic emergency medicine : a guide for clinicians. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-7637-4462-5. 
  4. "Diamorphine Hydrochloride Injection 30 mg – Summary of Product Characteristics". electronic Medicines Compendium. ViroPharma Limited. 24 September 2013. Retrieved 30 Mairch 2014. 
  5. Field, John (2012). The Textbook of Emergency Cardiovascular Care and CPR. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 447. ISBN 978-1-4698-0162-9. 
  6. Rang HP, Dale MM, Flower RJ, Henderson G (2011). Rang & Dale's pharmacology (7th ed.). Edinburgh, UK: Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 978-0-7020-3471-8. 
  7. "Nicknames and Street Names for Heroin". Thecyn.com. Retrieved 12 October 2013. 
  8. Uchtenhagen AA (Mairch 2011). "Heroin maintenance treatment: from idea to research to practice.". Drug and Alcohol Review. 30 (2): 130–7. PMID 21375613. doi:10.1111/j.1465-3362.2010.00266.x.