Henrik Ibsen

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Henrik Ibsen
Henrik Ibsen by Gustav Borgen NFB-19778 restored.jpg
Henrik Ibsen by Gustav Borgen
BornHenrik Johan Ibsen
20 Mairch 1828(1828-03-20)
Skien, Grenland, Unitit Kinricks o Swaden an Norawa
Dee'd23 Mey 1906(1906-05-23) (aged 78)
Christiania, Norawa
(modren Oslo)
Notable warksPeer Gynt (1867)
A Doll's House (1879)
Ghosts (1881)
An Enemy of the People (1882)
The Wild Duck (1884)
Hedda Gabler (1890)


Henrik Johan Ibsen (Norwegian: [ˈhɛnɾɪk ˈɪpsən]; 20 Mairch 1828 – 23 Mey 1906) wis a major 19t-century Norse playwricht, theatre director, an poet. As ane o the foonders o Modrenism in theatre, Ibsen is eften referred tae as "the faither o realism" an ane o the maist influential playwrichts o his time.[1] His major warks include Brand, Peer Gynt, An Enemy of the People, Emperor and Galilean, A Doll's House, Hedda Gabler, Ghosts, The Wild Duck, When We Dead Awaken, Pillars of Society, The Lady from the Sea, Rosmersholm, The Master Builder, an John Gabriel Borkman. He is the maist frequently performed dramatist in the warld efter Shakespeare,[2][3] an bi the early 20t century A Doll's House becam the warld's maist performed play.[4]

Several o his later dramas war considered scandalous tae mony o his era, whan European theatre wis expectit tae model strict morals o faimily life an propriety. Ibsen's later wark examined the realities that lay ahinr the façades, revealin muckle that wis disquietin tae a nummer o his contemporaries. He haed a creetical ee an conductit a free inquiry intae the condeetions o life an issues o morality. His early poetic an cinematic play Peer Gynt, houiver, haes an aw strang surreal elements.[5]

Ibsen is eften rankit as ane o the maist distinguished playwrichts in the European tradeetion.[6] Richard Hornby descrives him as "a profoond poetic dramatist—the best syne Shakespeare".[7] He is widely regairdit as the maist important playwricht syne Shakespeare.[6][8] He influenced ither playwrichts an novelists sic as George Bernard Shaw, Oscar Wilde, Arthur Miller, James Joyce, Eugene O'Neill, an Miroslav Krleža. Ibsen wis nominatit for the Nobel Prize in Leeteratur in 1902, 1903, an 1904.[9]

Ibsen wrote his plays in Dens (the common written leid o Denmark an Norawa in his lifetime)[10] an thay war published bi the Dens publisher Gyldendal. Awtho maist o his plays are set in Norawa—eften in places reminiscent o Skien, the port toun whaur he grew up—Ibsen leeved for 27 years in Italy an Germany, an rarely veesitit Norawa in his maist productive years. Born intae a merchant faimily connectit tae the patriciate o Skien, Ibsen shaped his dramas accordin tae his faimily backgrund. He wis the faither o Prime Meenister Sigurd Ibsen. Ibsen's dramas hae a strang influence upon contemporary cultur.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. On Ibsen's role as "father of modern drama", see "Ibsen Celebration to Spotlight 'Father of Modern Drama'". Bowdoin College. 23 January 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2007.; on Ibsen's relationship to modernism, see Moi (2006, 1–36)
  2. shakespearetheatre.org
  3. "Henrik Ibsen – book launch to commemorate the "Father of Modern Drama"".
  4. Bonnie G. Smith, "A Doll's House", in The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History, Vol. 2, p. 81, Oxford University Press
  5. Klaus Van Den Berg, "Peer Gynt" (review), Theatre Journal 58.4 (2006) 684–687
  6. 6.0 6.1 Valency, Maurice. The Flower and the Castle. Schocken, 1963.
  7. Richard Hornby, "Ibsen Triumphant", The Hudson Review, Vol. 56, No. 4 (Winter, 2004), pp. 685–691
  8. Byatt, AS (15 December 2006). "The age of becoming". The Guardian. London.
  9. "Nomination Database".
  10. Dens leid wis the written leid o baith Denmark an Norawa at the time, awtho it wis referred tae as Norse in Norawa ad occasionally includit some minor differences frae the leid uised in Denmark. Ibsen occasionally uised some Norseisms in his early wark, but he wrote his later works in a mair staundartised Dens, as his plays war published bi a Dens publisher an mercatit tae baith Norse an Dens audiences in the oreeginal Danish. Cf. Haugen, Einar (1979). "The nuances of Norwegian". Ibsen's Drama: Author to Audience. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota. p. 99. ISBN 0-8166-0896-2.