Harold Macmillan

Frae Wikipedia, the free beuk o knawledge
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Earl o Stockton

Harold Macmillan in 1959
Prime Meenister o the Unitit Kinrick
In office
10 Januar 1957 – 18 October 1963
MonarchElizabeth II
DeputeRab Butler
Precedit biSir Anthony Eden
Succeedit biSir Alec Douglas-Home
Leader o the Conservative Pairty
In office
10 Januar 1957 – 18 October 1963
Precedit biSir Anthony Eden
Succeedit biSir Alec Douglas-Home
Chancellor o the Exchequer
In office
20 December 1955 – 13 Januar 1957
Prime MeenisterSir Anthony Eden
Precedit biRab Butler
Succeedit biPeter Thorneycroft
Secretar o State for Foreign Affairs
In office
7 Aprile 1955 – 20 December 1955
Prime MeenisterSir Anthony Eden
Precedit biSir Anthony Eden
Succeedit biSelwyn Lloyd
Meenister o Defence
In office
19 October 1954 – 7 Aprile 1955
Prime MeenisterSir Winston Churchill
Precedit biEarl Alexander o Tunis
Succeedit biSelwyn Lloyd
Minister of Housing and Local Government
In office
30 October 1951 – 19 October 1954
Prime MeenisterSir Winston Churchill
Precedit biHugh Dalton
Succeedit biDuncan Sandys
Secretar o State for Air
In office
25 Mey 1945 – 26 Julie 1945
Prime MeenisterWinston Churchill
Precedit biSir Archibald Sinclair
Succeedit biViscount Stansgate
Minister Resident in Northwast Africae
In office
30 December 1942 – 25 Mey 1945
Prime MeenisterWinston Churchill
Precedit biNew post
Succeedit biHarold Balfour
Unner-Secretar o State for the Colonies
In office
4 Februar 1942 – 30 December 1942
Prime MeenisterWinston Churchill
Precedit biGeorge Hall
Succeedit biThe Duke o Devonshire
Pairlamentary Secretar tae the Meenistry o Supply
In office
15 Mey 1940 – 4 Februar 1942
Prime MeenisterWinston Churchill
Precedit biJohn Llewellin
Succeedit biViscoont Portal
Member o Pairlament
for Bromley
In office
14 November 1945 – 16 October 1964
Precedit biSir Edward Campbell
Succeedit biJohn Hunt
Member o Pairlament
for Stockton-on-Tees
In office
28 October 1931 – 6 Julie 1945
Precedit biFrederick Fox Riley
Succeedit biGeorge Chetwynd
In office
30 October 1924 – 31 May 1929
Precedit biRobert Strother Stewart
Succeedit biFrederick Fox Riley
Personal details
BornMaurice Harold Macmillan
10 Februar 1894(1894-02-10)
Belgravia, Middlesex, Ingland
Dee'd29 December 1986(1986-12-29) (aged 92)
Chelwood Gate, East Sussex, Ingland
Restin placeSt Giles' Kirk, Horsted Keynes
Poleetical pairtyConservative
Spoose(s)Lady Dorothy Cavendish (m. 1920; d. 1966)
BairnsMaurice Macmillan (deceased)
Caroline Faber
Catherine Amery (deceased)
Sarah Heath (deceased)
Alma materBalliol College, Oxford
Ceevilian awairdsOrder o Meerit
Militar service
AllegianceUnitit Kinrick Unitit Kinrick
Service/branchFlag of the British Army.svg Breetish Airmy
Rank15px Captain
UnitGrenadier Guards
Battles/warsFirst Warld War
Militar awairdsAllied Victory Medal BAR.svg Victory Medal
British War Medal BAR.svg Breetish War Medal

Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl o Stockton, OM, PC, FRS[2] (10 Februar 1894 – 29 December 1986) wis a Breetish Conservative politeecian an statesman who served as the Prime Meenister o the Unitit Kinrick frae 10 Januar 1957 tae 18 October 1963. Dubbed "Supermac", he wis kent for his pragmatism, wit an unflappabeelity.

Macmillan served in the Grenadier Gairds in the First Warld War. He wis woundit three times, maist sairly in September 1916 in the Battle o the Somme. He spent the rest o the war in a militar hospital unable tae walk, an haed pyne an pairtial immobility for the rest o his life. Efter the war Macmillan jynt his faimily business, then entered Pairlament at the 1924 general election for the northren industrial constituency o Stockton-on-Tees. Efter losin his seat in 1929, he regained it in 1931, suin efter that he spak oot against the heich rate o unemployment in Stockton-On-Tees, an against appeasement. Risin tae heich office in the Seicont Warld War as a protégé o wartime Prime Meenister Winston Churchill, Macmillan then served as Furrin Secretar an Chancellor o the Exchequer unner Churchill's successor Sir Anthony Eden. Whan Eden resigned in 1957 follaein the Suez Creesis, Macmillan succeedit him as Prime Meenister an Leader o the Conservative Pairty.

As a Ane Naition Tory o the Disraelian tradeetion, hauntit bi memories o the Great Depression, he believed in the post-war settlement an the necessity o a mixed economy, championin a Keynesian strategy o public investment tae mainteen demand an pursuin corporatist policies tae develop the domestic mercat as the ingine o growthe. Benefitin frae favourable internaitional condeetions,[3] he presidit ower an age o affluence, merkit bi law unemployment an heich—if uneven—growthe. In his Bedford speech o Julie 1957 he tauld the naition thay haed 'never had it so good',[4] but wairned o the dangers o inflation, summin up the fragile prosperity o the 1950s.[5] The Conservatives war re-electit in 1959 wi an increased majority.

In internaitional affairs, Macmillan rebiggit the Special Relationship wi the Unitit States frae the eftermath o the Suez Creesis (o that he haed been ane o the airchitects), an facilitatit the decolonisation o sub-Saharan Africae. Reconfeegurin the naition's defences tae meet the realities o the nuclear age, he endit Naitional Service, strenthened the nuclear forces bi acquirin Polaris, an pioneered the Nuclear Test Ban wi the Unitit States an the Soviet Union. Belatitly recognisin the dangers o strategic dependence, he socht a new role for Breetain in Europe, but his unwillingness tae disclose Unitit States nuclear saicrets tae Fraunce contreibutit tae a French veto o the Unitit Kinrick's entry intae the European Economic Commonty.[6]

Near the end o his premiership, his govrenment wis rockit bi the Vassall an Profumo scandals, that tae some, especially the rebellious youth o the 1960s, seemed tae seembolise the moral decay o the Breetish establishment.[7] Efter his resignation, Macmillan leeved oot a lang reteerment as an elder statesman. He wis as trenchant a creetic o his successors in his auld age as he haed been o his predecessors in his youth. In 1986, he dee'd at the age o 92.

Macmillan wis the last Breetish prime meenister born in the Victorian era, the last tae have served in the First Warld War an the last tae receive a hereditary peerage. At the time o his death, he wis the langest-leeved prime meenister in Breetish history,[8] a record surpassed bi James Callaghan in Februar 2005.[8]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. When Fisher resigned in 1961, Trushare.com, 17 March 1963, retrieved 31 January 2010
  2. Lord Hailsham Of St Marylebone (1987). "Maurice Harold Macmillan, First Earl of Stockton. 10 February 1894-29 December 1986". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 33: 376–326. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1987.0014. JSTOR 769957.
  3. Middleton 1997, pp. 422–23.
  4. Middleton 1997, p. 422.
  5. Peter Hennessy, Having It So Good: Britain in the Fifties (London: Allen Lane, 2006), pp. 533–34.
  6. Richard Lamb, The Macmillan Years 1957–1963: The Emerging Truth (London: John Murray, 1995), pp. 14–15.
  7. Leitch, David (8 December 1996), "The spy who rocked a world of privilege", The Independent, London, archived frae the oreeginal on 4 August 2012
  8. 8.0 8.1 Wintour, Patrick; Glover, Julian (14 February 2005). "Lord Callaghan sets record". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 January 2019. Prime minister between 1976 and 1979, Lord Callaghan is now one day older than Harold Macmillan was when he died in December 1986, aged 92.