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Greater Mexico Ceety

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Greater Mexico Ceety an Mexico Ceety (Distrito Federal)

Greater Mexico Ceety refers tae the conurbation aroond Mexico Ceety, offeecially cried Mexico Ceety Metropolitan Aurie (Área Metropolitana de la Ciudad de México),[1] constitutit bi the Federal Destrict—itsel componed o 16 burghs—an 41 adjacent municipalities o the states o Mexico an Hidalgo. For normative purposes, housomeivver, Greater Mexico Ceety maist commonly refers tae the Metropolitan Aurie o the Valley o Mexico (Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México) an agglomeration that incorporates 18 additional municipalities. As o 2009, Greater Mexico Ceety haes a population o 21,163,226, makkin it the third lairgest metropolitan aurie in the warld an the maist populous metropolitan aurie in the Americas.[2]

Syne the 1940s thare hae been different proposals tae establish the leemits o the growin conurbation o Mexico Ceety, an different definitions wur uised unoffeecially as the ceety continued tae grow. The Federal Govrenment (representit bi the Depairtment o Social Development), the Federal Destrict (Mexico Ceety proper), an the State o Mexico greeit on the offeecial definitions for baith the Mexico Ceety Metropolitan Aurie an the Metropolitan Aurie o the Valley o Mexico on 22 December 2005[3] Per the agreement, maist urban plannin projects will be admeenistered bi Metropolitan Commissions.

Components o the agglomeration[eedit | eedit soorce]

Mexico Ceety Metropolitan Aurie[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Mexico Ceety Metropolitan Aurie is definit tae be integratit bi:

The 16 burghs (delegaciones) o the Federal Destrict (Mexico Ceety proper)
The 40 municipalities o the State o Mexico
Ane conurbation municipality o the State o Hidalgo

Metropolitan Aurie o the Valley o Mexico[eedit | eedit soorce]

The definition o the Mexico Ceety Metropolitan Aurie is positive, in that aw municipalities form a single conurbation. Bi contrast, the Metropolitan Aurie o the Valley o Mexico is considered a normative definition, in that it incorporates 18 additional strategic municipalities in the territorial admeenistration o the region, even if thay are no fully integratit as o yet. Mony urban projects, maistly relatit tae the impruivement o air quality an watter sanitation, are coordinatit for aw constituent municipalities o this agglomeration. The majority o the population reports o urban auries in Mexico refer tae this agglomeration, an no tae the MCMA conurbation.

Geografie an environment[eedit | eedit soorce]

Comparative cairt o the oreeginal extent o the seestem o lakes an the current extent o the day's urban aurie

Greater Mexico Ceety spreads ower the Valley o Mexico, cried the valley o Anáhuac an aw, a 9,560 km² (3,691 sq mi) valley that lees at an average o 2,240 m (7,349 ft) abuin sea level but belaw the Tropic o Cancer. Oreeginally, a seestem o interconnectit lakes occupee'd a lairge aurie o the valley, o which Lake Texcoco wis the lairgest. Mexico Ceety wis biggit on the island o Tenochtitlan in the middle o the lake. Durin conquest o Mexico the dikes that protectit the ceety frae recurrent floods wur destroyed an colonial authorities preferred tae drain the watter o the lake, which wis, for the maist pairt, shallae. In 1900 preses Porfirio Díaz inauguratit the Valley's Seestem o Drainage that hinders the growt o watter bodies in the valley (an prevents floods). The basin o the valley o Mexico wis sicweys integratit airtificially tae the Moctezuma river basin which connects tae the Pánuco River. The last remnants o the seestem o lakes are foond in the burghs o Xochimilco an Tláhuac, an in the municipality o Atenco.

The valley o Mexico is surroondit bi muntains on aw fower sides creatin a basin wi anerlie ane sma openin at the north, trappin aw exhaust emissions o the ceety. At the soothren pairt o the basin the muntain range reaches an altitude o 3,952 m (12,965 ft) abuin sea level; an tae the east the volcanoes reach an altitude o mair nor 5,000 m (16,000 ft). The region receives anti-cyclonic seestems, producin weak winds that dae no allou for the dispersion o accumulatit air pollutants, producit bi the 50,000 industries operatin in Greater Mexico Ceety an the 4 million vehicles circulatin in its roads an heich-gates.[4]

Thare are several environmental programs in operation in aw municipalities o Greater Mexico Ceety. Ane o them is Hoy No Circula (kent in Scots as "Ane Day athoot a Caur"), whaurbi some vehicles wi certaint endin nummers on thair license plates are no alloued tae circulate on certaint days in an attempt tae cut doun on pollution an traffeck congestion. The program groups vehicles bi thair endin license plate deegits, an ivery weekday vehicles haein ony o the day's twa "hoy no circula" deegits are banned frae circulatin. For instance, on Fridays, vehicles wi plates endin in 9 or 0 mey no drive. This program is controversial syne it haes resultit in hoosehaulds buyin additional vehicles, whether new caurs for better-aff houses, or vera auld cheap—an sicweys mair pollutin—vehicles. Mairower newer vehicles are exempt frae complyin wi the program—in that thay are manufactured wi stricter pollution-reduction equipment—a muive said tae hae been pushed bi auto makers tae boost sales o new vehicles.

Ither environmental programs include the IMECA (Índice Metropolitano de la Calidad del Aire, "Metropolitan Index o Air Quality") a real-time monitorin o the concentrations o several pollutants on the atmosphere o the valley o Mexico. If the IMECA values reach a creetical level, an environmental contingency is declared whaurbi Hoy No Circula is extendit tae twa days per week, industrial activities are reducit, certaint gas pouer plants shut doun, an elementary schuil entry oors are chyngit. Thare haes been a decrease in the nummer o environmental contingencies syne the 1990s (due tae an impruivement fuels, the implementation o industrial controls an relocation o factories), frae mair nor 5 tae anerlie ane or zero a year in the last few years.

Poleetical admeenistration[eedit | eedit soorce]

Lik it is the case wi aw trans-municipal metropolitan auries in Mexico, thare is nae electit govrenment institution in chairge o admeenisterin the entire metropolitan aurie. Each municipality is autonomous tae admeenister its local affairs, regulatit bi the govrenment o the states thay belang tae. Houiver, unlik some ither lairge metropolitan auries that are entirely contained in ane state, lik Greater Guadalajara an Greater Monterrey in which the state govrenment coordinates metropolitan activities, Greater Mexico Ceety spreads ower three federal entities—twa states an the Federal Destrict—an therefore maist o the metropolitan projects hae tae be greeit upon bi govrenment offeecials o each federal entitie an/or owerseen bi the federal govrenment—syne the budget o the Federal Destrict is appruivit bi the Congress o the Union, bein the caipital o the federation—or throu metropolitan commissions.

Economy[eedit | eedit soorce]

Frae 1940 an till 1980, Greater Mexico Ceety experienced an intense rate o demographic growthe concurrent wi the economic policy o import substitution. Mexican industrial production wis hivily centralized in Greater Mexico Ceety durin this period which producit intense immigration tae the ceety. Close tae 52% o the economically active population o Greater Mexico Ceety wirkit in the industry sector in 1970.[5] This situation chyngit drastically durin the period o 1980 tae 2000, in which the economic based shiftit tae the service sector which in 2000 employed close tae 70% o the economically active population in the conurbation.[5] The annual rate o growt decreased sharply as well as the regional an naitional patterns o immigration: residents are muivin oot o the core ceety tae the suburbs or tae nearbi ceeties, whauras the northren states nou receive a lairger nummer o immigrants as new hubs o industrial production. Greater Mexico Ceety's main industries are nou relatit tae tred, financial services, insurance companies, telecommunications, informatics an transportation.[5] In spite o the recent shifts in economic production an the decentralization o the economic activity promotit bi the govrenment, Greater Mexico Ceety's share o tot economic activity in the kintra is still heich, tho decreasing. Mexico Ceety proper alane produces 21.8% o the naition's Gross Domestic Product, lairger than ony o the states.[6]

Demographics[eedit | eedit soorce]

Growt o the urban aurie frae 1900 tae 2000

Greater Mexico Ceety is the lairgest metropolitan aurie in Mexico an the aurie wi the heichest population densitie. As o 2009, 21,163,226 fowk live in this urban agglomeration, o which 8,841,916 live in Mexico Ceety proper.[2] In terms o population, the biggest municipalities that are pairt o Greater Mexico Ceety (excludin Mexico Ceety proper) are:[7]

The abuin municipalities are locatit in the state o Mexico; in fact, approximately 75% (10 million) o the state o México's population live in municipalities that are pairt o Greater Mexico Ceety's conurbation.

Greater Mexico Ceety wis the fastest growin metropolitan aurie in the kintra till the late 1980s. Syne then, an throu a policy o decentralization in order tae reduce the environmental pollutants o the growin conurbation, the annual rate o growt o the agglomeration haes decreased, an it is lawer than that o the ither fower lairgest metropolitan auries (namely Greater Guadalajara, Greater Monterrey, Greater Puebla an Greater Toluca) even tho it is still positive.[8] The net migration rate o Mexico Ceety proper frae 1995 tae 2000, housomeivver, wis negative,[9] which implees that residents are muivin tae the suburbs o the metropolitan aurie, or tae ither states o Mexico. In addition, some inner ceety suburbs are luisin population tae ooter ceety suburbs, indicatin continual expansion o Greater Mexico Ceety.

Transportation[eedit | eedit soorce]

Mexico Ceety's metro

Greater Mexico Ceety is connected throu a private netwirk o toll expressways tae the nearbi ceeties o Querétaro, Toluca, Cuernavaca, Pachuca an Puebla. Internally, the Federal Destrict is servicit bi airterial roads, locally cried ejes viales, while the metro aurie is connectit bi twa ring roads: the Periférico an Circuito Interior, wi an elevatit heich-gate runnin on tap o the first ane. In 2007 the Eje Troncal Metropolitano wis feenished, a heich-gate that connects Xochimilco wi Ciudad Azteca.

The federal govrenment haes stairtit the construction o a toll expresswa that wad connect the expresswas o Querétaro an Puebla, sae that traffeck muiving athort the kintra wad no hae tae go intae the ceety. The project is pairtially completit an local residents o the ootermaist municipalities uise it as a heich-speed alternative tae traivel athor the suburbs athoot haein tae uise the internal airterial roads o the ceety.

The maist important public transportation is the metro, ane o the lairgest in the warld wi 207 km an 175 stations, that anerlie services Mexico Ceety proper, even tho it is further extendit bi the Xochimilco Light Rail an new lines A an B. A commuter train, the Tren Suburbano, serve several municipalities o the metropolitan aurie syne it stairtit operatin bi mid-2007, wi new lines planned.

Unlik ither lairge metropolitan auries, Greater Mexico Ceety is servit bi anerlie ane airport, the Mexico Ceety Internaitional Airport or best kent as Benito Juárez Internaitional Airport, whose traffeck exceeds the current capacity. The 2000-2006 federal admeenistrations proposed the construction o a seicont airport for the metropolitan aurie tae be locatit at the municipality o Texcoco. Local residents, housomeivver, opposed the project, an the govrenment decidit tae big a seicont terminal on the restrictit aurie o the current airport, an decentralize flichts tae the nearbi metropolitan auries o Toluca, Puebla, Pachuca an Cuernavaca, which, alang wi Greater Mexico Ceety, conform a megalopolis (kent in Spainyie as a corona regional or ciudad-región).[10]

Landmarks[eedit | eedit soorce]

Ceety o Teotihuacan

Important laundmerks o Greater Mexico Ceety include the Historic Center o Mexico Ceety, the floatin gardens o Xochimilco, the Pre-Hispanic ceety ruins Teotihuacan, locatit at the municipality o the same name, aw three declared Warld Heritage Steids bi UNESCO in 1987. The Naitional Pairks at the soothren portion o the Federal Destrict (ower the muntainous range o Ajusco), the Pairks o Popocatépetl an Iztaccíhuatl an the Naitional Reserve o Lake Texcoco are some o the environmental laundmerks o the valley as well.

See an aw[eedit | eedit soorce]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. INEGI: Delimitación de las Zonas Metropolitanas de México
  2. a b National Population Council. "Mexico City Metropolitan Area" (PDF). Government of the State of Mexico. Archived frae the original (PDF) on 22 Julie 2011. Retrieved 9 December 2009.
  3. "News article of the agreement to define the metropolitan area". Archived frae the original on 9 Januar 2007. Retrieved 13 Juin 2012.
  4. "Secretaría del Medio Ambiente del Distrito Federal, SMA (2002) Programa para Mejorar la Calidad del Aire de la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México, Gobierno del Distrito Federal" (PDF). Archived frae the original (PDF) on 26 Januar 2007. Retrieved 13 Juin 2012.
  5. a b c Expansión y Reconversión Económica de la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México, Una Mirada de 1970 a 2000 by Rodolfo Montaño Salazar, UNAM
  6. Producto Interno Bruto por entidad federativa, INEGI
  7. http://www.inegi.org.mx/sistemas/TabuladosBasicos/preliminares2010.aspx Censo de Población y Vivienda 2010 Resultados preliminares (choose drop down Mexico for state)
  8. Síntesis de Resultados del Conteo 2005 INEGI
  9. Tasa de emigración, inmigración y migración neta de las entidades federativas
  10. Cap 2: Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México PROAIRE, Programa para Mejorar la Calidad del Aire ZMVM 2002-2010

Freemit airtins[eedit | eedit soorce]