Glucose

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D-Glucose
Glucose chain structure.svg
D-glucose-chain-3D-balls.png
Glucose C6H12O6
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
D-glucose
Seestematic IUPAC name
(2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-Pentahydroxyhexanal
Ither names
Blood sugar
Dextrose
Corn sugar
D-Glucose
Grape sugar
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
3DMet B04623
Abbreviations Glc
1281604
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
EC Nummer 200-075-1
Gmelin Reference 83256
KEGG
MeSH Glucose
RTECS nummer LZ6600000
UNII
Properties
C6H12O6
Molar mass 180.16 g·mol−1
Appearance White pouder
Density 1.54 g/cm3
Meltin pynt α-D-glucose: 146 °C
β-D-glucose: 150 °C
91 g/100 mL
Thermochemistry
Speceefic heat capacity, C [1]
Staundart molar
entropy
So298
209.2 J K−1 mol−1
Std enthalpy o
formation
ΔfHo298
−1271 kJ/mol [2]
Std enthalpy o
combustion
ΔcHo298
−2805 kJ/mol
Hazards
NFPA 704
Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heatit afore igneetion can occur. Flash pynt ower 93 °C (200 °F). E.g., canola ileHealth code 0: Exposur unner fire condeetions would offer no hazard beyond that o ordinary combustible material. E.g., sodium chlorideReactivity code 0: Normally stable, even unner fire exposur condeetions, an is nae reactive wi watter. E.g., liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
1
0
0
Except whaur itherwise notit, data are gien for materials in thair staundart state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
YesY verify (whit is YesYN ?)
Infobox references

Glucose (/ˈɡlks/ or /-kz/; C6H12O6, an aa kent as D-glucose, dextrose, or grape succar) is a semple monosaccharide foond in plants. It is ane o the three dietary monosaccharides, alang wi fructose an galactose, that are absorbed directly intae the bluidstream durin digestion. An important carbohydrate in biology, cells uise it as the primary soorce o energy[3] an a metabolic intermediate. Glucose is ane o the main products o photosynthesis an fuels for cellular respiration. Glucose exists in several different molecular structures, but aw o thir structurs can be dividit intae twa faimilies o mirror-images (stereoisomers). Anly ane set o thir isomers exists in naitur, those derived frae the "richt-haundit furm" o glucose, denotit D-glucose. D-glucose is whiles referred tae as dextrose, altho the uise o this name is strangly discouraged. The term dextrose is derived frae dextrorotatory glucose.[4] This name is tharefore confusin when applee'd tae the enantiomer, which rotates licht in the opposite direction. Starch an cellulose are polymers derived frae the dehydration o D-glucose. The ither stereoisomer, cried L-glucose, is hairdly ever foond in naitur.

The name "glucose" comes frae the Greek wird glukus (γλυκύς), meanin "sweet". The suffix "-ose" denotes a succar.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Boerio-Goates, Juliana (1991), "Heat-capacity measurements and thermodynamic functions of crystalline α-D-glucose at temperatures from 10K to 340K", J. Chem. Thermodynam., 23 (5): 403–9, doi:10.1016/S0021-9614(05)80128-4 .
  2. Ponomarev, V. V.; Migarskaya, L. B. (1960), "Heats of combustion of some amino-acids", Russ. J. Phys. Chem. (Engl. Transl.), 34: 1182–83 .
  3. Clark, D. (1999), Basic Neurochemistry: Molecular, Cellular and Medical Aspects, Lippincott, pp. 637–670  Unkent parameter |coauthors= ignored (help)
  4. "dextrose", Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, retrieved 2009-09-02 .

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