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Ghaznavid Empire at its greatest extent in 1030 C.E.
Ghaznavid Empire at its greatest extent in 1030 C.E.
Common leidsPersie (offeecial an coort leid; lingua franca)[2][3]
Arabic (theology)
Turkic (militar)[4]
Sunni Islam
• 977–997
Sabuktigin (first)
• 1160–1186
Khusrau Malik (last)
• 998–1013
Abu'l-Hasan Isfaraini (first mentioned)
• 12t-century
Abu'l-Ma'ali Nasrallah (last mentioned)
Historical eraMedieval
• Established
• Disestablished
1029 est.[5][6]3,400,000 km2 (1,300,000 sq mi)
Precedit bi
Succeedit bi
Saffarid dynasty
Ghurid dynasty
Seljuk Empire

The Ghaznavid dynasty (Persie: غزنویانġaznaviyān) wis a Persianate[7] Muslim dynasty o Turkic mamluk origin[8] at their greatest extent rulin lairge pairts o Iran, Afghanistan, much o Transoxiana, an northwast Indian subcontinent frae 977–1186.[9][10][11]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "Lahore" Encyclopædia Britannica
  2. Homa Katouzian, "Iranian history and politics", Published by Routledge, 2003. pg 128: "Indeed, since the formation of the Ghaznavids state in the tenth century until the fall of Qajars at the beginning of the twentieth century, most parts of the Iranian cultural regions were ruled by Turkic-speaking dynasties most of the time. At the same time, the official language was Persian, the court literature was in Persian, and most of the chancellors, ministers, and mandarins were Persian speakers of the highest learning and ability"
  3. "Persian Prose Literature." World Eras. 2002. HighBeam Research. (3 September 2012);"Princes, although they were often tutored in Arabic and religious subjects, frequently did not feel as comfortable with the Arabic language and preferred literature in Persian, which was either their mother tongue—as in the case of dynasties such as the Saffarids (861–1003), Samanids (873–1005), and Buyids (945–1055)—or was a preferred lingua franca for them—as with the later Turkish dynasties such as the Ghaznawids (977–1187) and Saljuks (1037–1194)". [1] Archived 2013-05-02 at the Wayback Machine
  4. C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids:994–1040, (Edinburgh University Press, 1963), 134.
  5. Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of world-systems research. 12 (2): 223. ISSN 1076-156X. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  6. Rein Taagepera (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly. 41 (3): 496. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. Retrieved 16 September 2016.
  7. Böwering, Gerhard; Crone, Patricia; Mirza, Mahan (1 Januar 2012). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton University Press. pp. 410–411.
  8. Islamic Central Asia: an anthology of historical sources, Ed. Scott Cameron Levi and Ron Sela, (Indiana University Press, 2010), 83;The Ghaznavids were a dynasty of Turkic slave-soldiers..., "Ghaznavid Dynasty" Encyclopædia BritannicaJonathan M. Bloom, Sheila Blair, The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture, Oxford University Press, 2009, Vol.2, p.163, Online Edition, "Turkish dominated mamluk regiments...dynasty of mamluk origin (the GHAZNAVID line) carved out an empire..."
  9. C.E. Bosworth: The Ghaznavids. Edinburgh, 1963
  10. C.E. Bosworth, "Ghaznavids" in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition 2006
  11. C.E. Bosworth, "Ghaznavids", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition; Brill, Leiden; 2006/2007