Germanium

Frae Wikipedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Germanium,  32Ge
Grayish lustrous block wi uneven cleaved surface
General properties
Appearance grayish-white
Staundart atomic wecht (Ar, staundart) 72.630(8)
Germanium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
Si

Ge

Sn
galliumgermaniumarsenic
Atomic nummer (Z) 32
Group group 14 (caurbon group)
Period period 4
Element category   metalloid
Block p-block
Electron confeeguration [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
Electrons per shell
2, 8, 18, 4
Pheesical properties
Phase (at STP) solit
Meltin pynt 1211.40 K ​(938.25 °C, ​1720.85 °F)
Bylin pynt 3106 K ​(2833 °C, ​5131 °F)
Density (near r.t.) 5.323 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.) 5.60 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 36.94 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation 334 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 23.222 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1644 1814 2023 2287 2633 3104
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -3, -4
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.01
Atomic radius empirical: 122 pm
Covalent radius 122 pm
Van der Waals radius 211 pm
Color lines in a spectral range
Miscellanea
Creestal structurdiamond cubic
Diamond cubic creestal structur for germanium
Speed o soond thin rod 5400 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 6.0 µm/(m·K)
Thermal conductivity 60.2 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 1  Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin Diamagnetic[1]
Young's modulus 103[2] GPa
Shear modulus 41[2] GPa
Bouk modulus 75[2] GPa
Poisson ratio 0.26[2]
Mohs haurdness 6.0
CAS Nummer 7440-56-4
History
Predeection Dmitri Mendeleev (1871)
Diskivery Clemens Winkler (1886)
Main isotopes o germanium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
68Ge syn 270.8 d ε 68Ga
70Ge 21.23% stable
71Ge syn 11.26 d ε 71Ga
72Ge 27.66% stable
73Ge 7.73% stable
74Ge 35.94% stable
76Ge 7.44% 1.78×1021 y ββ 76Se
| references | in Wikidata

Germanium is a chemical element wi seembol Ge an atomic nummer 32. It is a lustrous, haird, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically seemilar tae its group neighbors tin an silicon. Purified germanium is a semiconductor, wi an appearance maist seemilar tae elemental silicon. Lik silicon, germanium naiturally reacts an furms complexes wi oxygen in naitur. Unlik silicon, it is too reactive tae be foond naiturally on Yird in the free (native) state.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "Properties of Germanium". Ioffe Institute.