Germanium

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Germanium,  32Ge
Grayish lustrous block wi uneven cleaved surface
A 12 gram (2x3 cm) polycrystalline block o Ge wi uneven cleaved surfaces
General properties
Name, seembol germanium, Ge
Pronunciation /ərˈmniəm/
jər-MAY-nee-əm
Appearance grayish-white
Germanium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Iron (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Copper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Silver (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercury (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Lead (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)
Si

Ge

Sn
galliumgermaniumarsenic
Atomic nummer 32
Staundart atomic wicht (Ar) 72.630(8) 
Element category   metalloid
Group, block group 14 (carbon group), p-block
Period period 4
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
per shell
2, 8, 18, 4
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 1211.40 K ​(938.25 °C, ​1720.85 °F)
Boilin pynt 3106 K ​(2833 °C, ​5131 °F)
Density near r.t. 5.323 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 5.60 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 36.94 kJ/mol
Heat o 334 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 23.222 J/(mol·K)
 pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1644 1814 2023 2287 2633 3104
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -3, -4
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 2.01
Atomic radius empirical: 122 pm
Covalent radius 122 pm
Van der Waals radius 211 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structur diamond cubic
Diamond cubic crystal structure for germanium
Speed o soond thin rod 5400 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion 6.0 µm/(m·K)
Thermal conductivity 60.2 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity 1  Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderin Diamagnetic[1]
Young's modulus 103[2] GPa
Shear modulus 41[2] GPa
Bulk modulus 75[2] GPa
Poisson ratio 0.26[2]
Mohs haurdness 6.0
CAS Registry Nummer 7440-56-4
History
Prediction Dmitri Mendeleev (1871)
Discovery Clemens Winkler (1886)
Maist stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o germanium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
68Ge syn 270.8 d ε - 68Ga
70Ge 21.23% 70Ge is stable wi 38 neutrons
71Ge syn 11.26 d ε - 71Ga
72Ge 27.66% 72Ge is stable wi 40 neutrons
73Ge 7.73% 73Ge is stable wi 41 neutrons
74Ge 35.94% 74Ge is stable wi 42 neutrons
76Ge 7.44% 1.78×1021 y ββ 2.039 76Se
· references

Germanium is a chemical element wi seembol Ge an atomic nummer 32. It is a lustrous, haird, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically seemilar tae its group neighbors tin an silicon. Purified germanium is a semiconductor, wi an appearance maist seemilar tae elemental silicon. Lik silicon, germanium naiturally reacts an furms complexes wi oxygen in naitur. Unlik silicon, it is too reactive tae be foond naiturally on Yird in the free (native) state.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "Properties of Germanium". Ioffe Institute.