Germanium

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Germanium, 32Ge
Template:Infobox element/symbol-to-top-image/alt
Germanium
Pronunciation/ərˈmniəm/ (jər-MAY-nee-əm)
Appearancegrayish-white
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Ge)72.630(8)[1]
Mass numberGe:
Germanium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
Si

Ge

Sn
galliumgermaniumarsenic
Atomic nummer (Z)32
Groupgroup 14 (caurbon group)
Periodperiod 4
Blockp-block
Element category  Metalloid
Electron confeeguration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 4
Pheesical properties
Phase at STPsolit
Meltin pynt1211.40 K ​(938.25 °C, ​1720.85 °F)
Bylin pynt3106 K ​(2833 °C, ​5131 °F)
Density (near r.t.)5.323 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)5.60 g/cm3
Heat o fusion36.94 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation334 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity23.222 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1644 1814 2023 2287 2633 3104
Atomic properties
Oxidation states−4 −3, −2, −1, 0,[2] +1, +2, +3, +4 (an amphoteric oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 2.01
Atomic radiusempirical: 122 pm
Covalent radius122 pm
Van der Waals radius211 pm
Colour lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines o germanium
Ither properties
Naitural occurrenceGe: Primordial
Creestal structurdiamond cubic
Diamond cubic creestal structur for germanium
Speed o soond thin rod5400 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion6.0 µm/(m·K)
Thermal conductivity60.2 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity1  Ω·m (at 20 °C)
Magnetic orderinDiamagnetic[3]
Young's modulus103[4] GPa
Shear modulus41[4] GPa
Bulk modulus75[4] GPa
Poisson ratio0.26[4]
Mohs haurdness6.0
CAS Nummer7440-56-4
History
PredictionDmitri Mendeleev (1871)
DiskiveryClemens Winkler (1886)
Main isotopes o germanium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
68Ge syn 270.8 d ε 68Ga
70Ge 21.23% stable
71Ge syn 11.26 d ε 71Ga
72Ge 27.66% stable
73Ge 7.73% stable
74Ge 35.94% stable
76Ge 7.44% 1.78×1021 y ββ 76Se
| references

Germanium is a chemical element wi seembol Ge an atomic nummer 32. It is a lustrous, haird, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically seemilar tae its group neighbors tin an silicon. Purified germanium is a semiconductor, wi an appearance maist seemilar tae elemental silicon. Lik silicon, germanium naiturally reacts an furms complexes wi oxygen in naitur. Unlik silicon, it is too reactive tae be foond naiturally on Yird in the free (native) state.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Meija, Juris; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305. Cite uses deprecated parameter |displayauthors= (help)
  2. "New Type of Zero-Valent Tin Compound". ChemistryViews. 27 August 2016.
  3. Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, in Handbook of Chemistry and Physics 81st edition, CRC press.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "Properties of Germanium". Ioffe Institute.