Gaza War (2008–09)

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Gaza War
Pairt o the Gaza–Israel conflict
Gaza Strip map2.svg
Map o Gaza
Date27 December 2008 – 18 Januar 2009
(3 weeks and 1 day)
LocationGaza Strip an Soothren Israel
Result

Israeli militar veectory[2][3][4][5]

Belligerents
Israel Israel (IDF, ISA)

 Gaza Strip[1]

Commanders an leaders

Israel Ehud Olmert
Prime Meenister
Israel Ehud Barak
Meenister o Defence
Israel Gabi Ashkenazi
Chief o General Staff
Israel Yoav Galant
Soothren Command
Israel Ido Nehoshtan
Air Force
Israel Eli Marom
Navy
Israel Eyal Eisenberg
Gaza Diveesion

Israel Yuval Diskin
Internal Siccarity Service

Flag of Hamas.svg Khaled Mashal[9]
Flag of Hamas.svg Ismail Haniyeh
Flag of Hamas.svg Said Seyam (KIA)
Flag of Hamas.svg Mohammed Deif
Flag of Hamas.svg Abu Zakaria al-Jamal (KIA)
Flag of Hamas.svg Ahmed Jabari
Flag of Hamas.svg Tawfik Jaber (KIA)[10]
Flag of Hamas.svg Osama Mazini
Flag of Hamas.svg Nizar Rayan (KIA)[10]
Flag of Hamas.svg Mahmoud al-Zahar

Flag of the Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine.svg Ramadan Shallah
Strenth

IDF: 4,000[11]–20,000[12] deployed in ground invasion and tens of thousands of reservists mobilized[13] (176,000 total active personnel)[14]

Hamas (Izzedine Al-Qassam Brigades an paramilitar polis): 20,000 (est. tot)[18][19]
Ither Palestinian paramilitar forces: 10,000[20]

Casualties an losses

Tot killed: 13
Sodgers: 10 (friendly fire: 4)[28]
Civilians: 3

Tot woundit: 518
Soldiers: 336[29]
Civilians: 182[29]

Tot killed: 1,417 (PCHR),[30] 1,391 (B'Tselem),[31] 1,166 (IDF)[32]

Militants an polis officers:
491* (PCHR),[30] 600* (B'Tselem),[31] 709 (IDF),[32] 600–700 (Hamas)[33]
Ceevilians: 926 (PCHR),[30] 759 (B'Tselem),[31] 295 (IDF)[32]

Tot wounded: 5,303 (PCHR)[30]

Tot capturt: 120 (IDF)

Ane Egyptian mairch gaird officer killt an three woundit, an twa childer woundit.[34][35]
Ower 50,800 Gaza residents displaced.[36]

Ower 4,000 hames destroyed; aroond $2bn worth o damage tae Gaza[37]
*255 (PCHR)[30] or 265 (B'Tselem)[31] polis officers war killt.

The Gaza War, an aa kent as Operation Cast Leid (מִבְצָע עוֹפֶרֶת יְצוּקָה‎),[38] also known as the Gaza Massacre (مجزرة غزة‎)[39][40][41] an the Battle o al-Furqan (معركة الفرقان‎) bi Hamas,[42][43] wis a three-week airmed conflict atween Palestinians in the Gaza Strip an Israel that begoud on 27 December 2008 an endit on 18 Januar 2009 in a unilateral ceasefire.[44]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Shane Bauer. "Palestinian factions united by war". Al Jazeera English. Archived frae the oreeginal on 22 January 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-23. 
  2. Eshel, David (2009-05-11). "New Tactics Yield Solid Victory in Gaza". Aviation Week. Archived frae the oreeginal on 14 June 2011. Retrieved 2009-07-03. 
  3. Spyer, Jonathan (10 September 2009). "Hamas seeks new doctrine after Gaza War failures". The Jerusalem Post. Archived frae the oreeginal on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 2010-03-24. 
  4. Ethan Bonner, Hamas Shifts From Rockets to Culture War The New York Times, 24 July 2009.
  5. Sengupta, Kim; MacIntyre, Donald (2009-01-18). "Victorious, but vilified: Israel has 'destroyed its image and its soul'". The Independent. London. Retrieved 2010-05-03. 
  6. "Hamas leader in Syria announce one-week ceasefire in Gaza". Xinhua. 18 January 2009. Archived frae the oreeginal on 29 January 2009. Retrieved 3 August 2009. 
  7. "Hamas agrees to 1-week ceasefire". CBC News. 2009-01-18. Retrieved 2009-08-03. 
  8. "Gaza Humanitarian Situation Report – January 2, 2009 as of 14:30" (PDF). UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 2 January 2009. Archived frae the oreeginal (PDF) on 3 January 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-02. 
  9. Altman, Alex (2009-01-04). "Hamas Leader Khaled Mashaal". Time. Retrieved 2010-06-05. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Butcher, Tim (2009-01-02). "Israel bombs Gaza for seventh day after killing Hamas leader". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 2010-06-05. 
  11. "Israel vows no let-up over Gaza". BBC News. 2009-01-05. Retrieved 4 May 2010. 
  12. Jason Koutsoukis (2009-01-04). "Israeli troops enter Gaza". The Sydney Morning Herald. 
  13. Fletcher, Martin (2009-01-12). "Israel reinforces army before 'third phase' of war in Gaza". The Times. London. Retrieved 2010-05-17. (subscription needit)
  14. "Institute for National Security Studies" (PDF). Archived frae the oreeginal (PDF) on 31 March 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2010. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.9 Esposito, Michele K. (Spring 2009). "Military Dimensions: The Israeli Arsenal Deployed against Gaza". Journal of Palestine Studies. University of California Press on behalf of the Institute for Palestine Studies. 38 (3): 175–191. doi:10.1525/jps.2009.XXXVIII.3.175. ISSN 1533-8614. JSTOR 10.1525/jps.2009.XXXVIII.3.175. (Subscription required (help)). 
  16. "Israel unveils defense shield for Merkavas". United Press International. 6 April 2010. Retrieved 7 April 2010. 
  17. 17.0 17.1 Wall, Robert (23 February 2009). "Israel unleashed Bulls and Matadors on Gaza". Aviation Week. Retrieved 5 May 2010. 
  18. "Israeli think tank: Hamas has 20,000 armed men in Gaza Strip", Associated Press, Haaretz, 10 Apryle 2008
  19. Butcher, Tim (2009-01-05). "Hamas fighters now a well-organised force". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 3 May 2010. 
  20. Haidar Eid (2009-01-02). "Israel's war of terror against Gaza". Socialist Worker. Retrieved 2010-06-05. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 Yagna, Yanir; Ashkenazi, Eli; Pfeffer, Anshel (15 January 2009). "Hamas launches first phosphorus rocket at Negev; no injuries reported". Haaretz. Retrieved 5 May 2010. 
  22. "Hamas Military buildup in the Gaza Strip", IICC 8 Apryle 2008, p. 35 Archived 13 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  23. "Hamas Military buildup in the Gaza Strip", IICC 8 April 2008, p. 34 Archived 13 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 "Hamas Military buildup in the Gaza Strip", IICC 8 April 2008, p. 39 Archived 28 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  25. Macintrye, Donald (4 February 2010). "Israeli commander: 'We rewrote rules of war for Gaza conflict'". The Belfast Telegraph. Jerusalem. Retrieved 6 March 2010. 
  26. Amos Harel (11 January 2009). "Sources: Hamas fired anti-aircraft missiles at IAF planes". Haaretz. Retrieved 4 June 2012. 
  27. Ilan, Shahar. "Suicide bombers wore IDF uniforms, says army chief". Haaretz. Retrieved 2010-06-05. 
  28. "Israeli troops step up attacks on Hamas outside Gaza City". Sebastian Rotella and Rushdi abu Alouf, Los Angeles Times, 13 January 2009
  29. 29.0 29.1 "Field update on Gaza from the Humanitarian Coordinator" Archived 5 Februar 2009[Date mismatch] at the Wayback Machine.. 24–26 January 2009. OCHA oPt (United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs – occupied Palestinian territory). oachopt.org.
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 30.3 30.4 "Confirmed figures reveal the true extent of the destruction inflicted upon the Gaza Strip; Israel's offensive resulted in 1,417 dead, including 926 civilians, 255 police officers, and 236 fighters". Archived from the original on 12 June 2009. Retrieved 19 March 2009. . Palestinian Centre for Human Richts (PCHR), 12 Mairch 2009.
  31. 31.0 31.1 31.2 31.3 B’Tselem, "Fatalities during Operation Cast Lead"
  32. 32.0 32.1 32.2 "IDF releases Cast Lead casualty numbers". Yaakov Lappin, The Jerusalem Post, 26 March 2009
  33. "Hamas admits 600–700 of its men were killed in Cast Lead" (9 November 2010). Haaretz. Retrieved 2 Mairch 2011
  34. "קצין מצרי נהרג מירי אנשי חמאס סמוך למעבר רפיח" [Egyptian officer killed by Hamas near the Rafah crossing] (in Ebreu). nana 10. Retrieved 2009-01-01. 
  35. "Two Egyptian Children, Police Injured in Israeli Air Strike Near Gaza Border". 2009-01-11. Archived frae the oreeginal on 14 January 2009. 
  36. "Gaza 'looks like earthquake zone'". BBC. 19 Januar 2009
  37. "Gaza: Humanitarian situation". BBC News. 2009-01-30. Retrieved 2010-03-24. 
  38. The operation begoud in the midst o celebratin the Jewish holiday o Hanukkah; the name "Cast Leid" (עופרת יצוקה‎, Ebreu pronunciation: [ofeʁet jetsuka]) is a famous phrase frae Israel's naitional poet Hayim Nahman Bialik's popular Ebreu childer's sang "Likhvod haḤanukkah" (לכבוד החנוכה‎). In the sang (see article in the Ebreu Wikipaedia), the bairn narrator is gien a dreidel made o cast leid. See "Operation Cast Lead" in: Gavriely-Nuri, Dalia (2013). The Normalization of War in Israeli Discourse, 1967–2008. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. pp. 42–43. ISBN 978-0-7391-7260-5. , on Google Books; Gavriely-Nuri, "mi'Shlom haGalil' le'Oferet Yetzuka': hashemot shel mivtze'ei Tzahal", "30 shana leMilkhemet Levanon haRishona: mabat mekhudash" (conference), 3rd session: yitzugei Levanon vehamilkhama batarbut haYisre'elit, The Ebreu Varsity o Jerusalem – The Leonard Davis Institute for International Relations, The Department of International Relation and The Department of Communication and Journalism, 2 Mey 2012, 1:05:52 ff. (lecture begins at 56:25) (Hebrew).
  39. Gaita, Raimond, ed. (2010). Gaza: Morality, Law & Politics. UWA Publishing. p. 1. ISBN 9781742580968. 
  40. Fisher, David; Wicker, Brian (2010). Just war on terror?: A Christian and Muslim response. Ashgate Publishing. p. 164. 
  41. Wiegand, Krista (2010). Bombs and ballots: governance by Islamist terrorist and guerrilla groups. Ashgate Publishing. p. 131. 
  42. "Studies on the Israeli Aggression on Gaza Strip: Cast Lead Operation / Al-Furqan Battle". Al-Zaytuna Center for Studies & Consultations. Archived frae the oreeginal on 13 December 2014. ... the Cast Lead Operation or al-Furqan Battle as named by Israel and Hamas respectively ...  Secondary source, Abdul-Hameed al-Kayyali, Studies on the Israeli Aggression on Gaza Strip: Cast Lead Operation / Al-Furqan Battle, 2009
  43. Maximilian Felsch (November 2011). Die Hamas: eine pragmatische soziale Bewegung?: Eine transnationale empirische Fallanalyse der Hamas in den besetzten Gebieten, in Jordanien, im Libanon und in Syrien [Hamas: a pragmatic social movement?: A transnational empirical case analysis of Hamas in the occupied territories, in Jordan, in Lebanon and in Syria] (in German). Waxmann Verlag. p. 106. ISBN 978-3-8309-2611-5. Retrieved 24 December 2011. 
  44. Ben-David, Alon (9 January 2009). "Israeli offensive seeks 'new security reality' in Gaza". Jane's Defence Weekly. Retrieved 1 August 2010.