Gadolinium

Frae Wikipedia
Lowp tae: navigation, rake
Gadolinium,  64Gd
Gadolinium-4.jpg
General properties
Name, seembol gadolinium, Gd
Pronunciation /ˌɡædəˈlɪniəm/
GAD-ə-LIN-ee-əm
Appearance sillery white
Gadolinium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline yird metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline yird metal)
Aluminium (post-transeetion metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline yird metal)
Scandium (transeetion metal)
Titanium (transeetion metal)
Vanadium (transeetion metal)
Chromium (transeetion metal)
Manganese (transeetion metal)
Iron (transeetion metal)
Cobalt (transeetion metal)
Nickel (transeetion metal)
Copper (transeetion metal)
Zinc (transeetion metal)
Gallium (post-transeetion metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline yird metal)
Yttrium (transeetion metal)
Zirconium (transeetion metal)
Niobium (transeetion metal)
Molybdenum (transeetion metal)
Technetium (transeetion metal)
Ruthenium (transeetion metal)
Rhodium (transeetion metal)
Palladium (transeetion metal)
Silver (transeetion metal)
Cadmium (transeetion metal)
Indium (post-transeetion metal)
Tin (post-transeetion metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline yird metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transeetion metal)
Tantalum (transeetion metal)
Tungsten (transeetion metal)
Rhenium (transeetion metal)
Osmium (transeetion metal)
Iridium (transeetion metal)
Platinum (transeetion metal)
Gold (transeetion metal)
Mercury (transeetion metal)
Thallium (post-transeetion metal)
Lead (post-transeetion metal)
Bismuth (post-transeetion metal)
Polonium (post-transeetion metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline yird metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transeetion metal)
Dubnium (transeetion metal)
Seaborgium (transeetion metal)
Bohrium (transeetion metal)
Hassium (transeetion metal)
Meitnerium (unkent chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unkent chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unkent chemical properties)
Copernicium (transeetion metal)
Ununtrium (unkent chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transeetion metal)
Ununpentium (unkent chemical properties)
Livermorium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unkent chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unkent chemical properties)
-

Gd

Cm
europiumgadoliniumterbium
Atomic nummer 64
Staundart atomic wicht (Ar) 157.25
Element category   lanthanide
Group, block group n/a, f-block
Period period 6
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
per shell
2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase solid
Meltin pynt 1585 K ​(1312 °C, ​2394 °F)
Boilin pynt 3546 K ​(3273 °C, ​5923 °F)
Density near r.t. 7.90 g/cm3
when liquid, at m.p. 7.4 g/cm3
Heat o fusion 10.05 kJ/mol
Heat o 301.3 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity 37.03 J/(mol·K)
 pressure (calculated)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1836 2028 2267 2573 2976 3535
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 1, 2, 3 (mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity Pauling scale: 1.20
Atomic radius empirical: 180 pm
Covalent radius 196±6 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structur hexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed crystal structure for gadolinium
Speed o soond thin rod 2680 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion (100 °C, α, poly) 9.4 µm/(m·K)
Thermal conductivity 10.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity (r.t.) (α, poly) 1.310 µ Ω·m
Magnetic orderin ferromagnetic/paramagnetic
transeetion at 293.4 K
Young's modulus (α form) 54.8 GPa
Shear modulus (α form) 21.8 GPa
Bulk modulus (α form) 37.9 GPa
Poisson ratio (α form) 0.259
Vickers haurdness 570 MPa
CAS Registry Nummer 7440-54-2
History
Discovery Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac (1880)
First isolation Lecoq de Boisbaudran (1886)
Maist stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes o gadolinium
iso NA hauf-life DM DE (MeV) DP
152Gd 0.20% 1.08×1014 y α 2.205 148Sm
154Gd 2.18% - (α) 0.0812 150Sm
155Gd 14.80% - (α) 0.0812 151Sm
156Gd 20.47% - (SF) <71.541
157Gd 15.65% - (SF) <70.531
158Gd 24.84% - (SF) <70.965
160Gd 21.86% >1.3×1021 y (ββ) 1.729 160Dy
Decay modes in parentheses are predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
· references

Gadolinium is a chemical element wi seembol Gd a atomic nummer 64. It is a sillery-white, malleable an ductile rare-yird metal. It is foond in naitur anly in combined (saut) furm. Gadolinium wis first detectit spectroscopically in 1880 bi de Marignac who separatit its oxide and is creditit wi its discovery. It is named for gadolinite, ane o the minerals in which it wis foond, in turn named for chemist Johan Gadolin. The metal wis isolatit bi Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1886.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]