Gadolinium

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Gadolinium, 64Gd
Template:Infobox element/symbol-to-top-image/alt
Gadolinium
Pronunciation/ˌɡædəˈlɪniəm/ (GAD-ə-LIN-ee-əm)
Appearancesillery white
Standard atomic weight Ar, std(Gd)157.25(3)[1]
Mass numberGd:
Gadolinium in the periodic cairt
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Siller (element) Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gowd Mercur (element) Thallium Leid (element) Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Ununtrium Flerovium Ununpentium Livermorium Ununseptium Ununoctium
-

Gd

Cm
europiumgadoliniumterbium
Atomic nummer (Z)64
Groupgroup n/a
Periodperiod 6
Blockf-block
Element category  Lanthanide
Electron confeeguration[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
Electrons per shell2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
Pheesical properties
Phase at STPsolit
Meltin pynt1585 K ​(1312 °C, ​2394 °F)
Bylin pynt3546 K ​(3273 °C, ​5923 °F)
Density (near r.t.)7.90 g/cm3
when liquid (at m.p.)7.4 g/cm3
Heat o fusion10.05 kJ/mol
Heat o vapourisation301.3 kJ/mol
Molar heat capacity37.03 J/(mol·K)
Vapour pressur (calculated)
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1836 2028 2267 2573 2976 3535
Atomic properties
Oxidation states0,[2] +1, +2, +3 (a mildly basic oxide)
ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.20
Atomic radiusempirical: 180 pm
Covalent radius196±6 pm
Colour lines in a spectral range
Spectral lines o gadolinium
Ither properties
Naitural occurrenceGd: Primordial
Creestal structurhexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Hexagonal close packed creestal structur for gadolinium
Speed o soond thin rod2680 m/s (at 20 °C)
Thermal expansion(100 °C, α, poly) 9.4 µm/(m·K)
Thermal conductivity10.6 W/(m·K)
Electrical resistivity(r.t.) (α, poly) 1.310 µ Ω·m
Magnetic orderinferromagnetic/paramagnetic
transeetion at 293.4 K
Young's modulus(α form) 54.8 GPa
Shear modulus(α form) 21.8 GPa
Bulk modulus(α form) 37.9 GPa
Poisson ratio(α form) 0.259
Vickers haurdness570 MPa
CAS Nummer7440-54-2
History
DiskiveryJean Charles Galissard de Marignac (1880)
First isolationLecoq de Boisbaudran (1886)
Main isotopes o gadolinium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Hauf-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
152Gd 0.20% 1.08×1014 y α 148Sm
154Gd 2.18% - (α) 150Sm
155Gd 14.80% - (α) 151Sm
156Gd 20.47% - (SF)
157Gd 15.65% - (SF)
158Gd 24.84% - (SF)
160Gd 21.86% >1.3×1021 y (ββ) 160Dy
Decay modes in parentheses are predictit, but hae nae yet been observed
| references

Gadolinium is a chemical element wi seembol Gd a atomic nummer 64. It is a sillery-white, malleable an ductile rare-yird metal. It is foond in naitur anly in combined (saut) furm. Gadolinium wis first detectit spectroscopically in 1880 bi de Marignac who separatit its oxide an is creditit wi its discovery. It is named for gadolinite, ane o the minerals in which it wis foond, in turn named for chemist Johan Gadolin. The metal wis isolatit bi Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1886.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Meija, Juris; et al. (2016). "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.
  2. Yttrium and all lanthanides except Ce, Pm, Eu, Tm, Yb have been observed in the oxidation state 0 in bis(1,3,5-tri-t-butylbenzene) complexes, see Cloke, F. Geoffrey N. (1993). "Zero Oxidation State Compounds of Scandium, Yttrium, and the Lanthanides". Chem. Soc. Rev. 22: 17–24. doi:10.1039/CS9932200017.