Faw o Constantinople

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Conquest o Constantinople
Part of the Byzantine–Ottoman Wars an Ottoman wars in Europe
Constantinople 1453.jpg
The last siege o Constantinople, contemporary 15t century French miniatur
Date 6 Aprile – 29 Mey 1453 (53 days)
Location Constantinople (present-day Istanbul)
Result
Belligerents
Commanders and leaders
Strength

Byzantines

Laund forces:

Naval forces:

Note: O the 7,000 – 10,000 sodgers in the Byzantine airmy, 700 war baith Genoese an Greek frae the island o Chios an Genoa (400 war recruitit at Genoa an 300 at Chios), 800 sodgers led bi the Venetians (maistly o Cretan origin, an renained for haein focht heroically during the siege), 200 men frae Cardinal Isidore, aw o which war airchers. Bi naitionality, thare war 5,000 Greeks an 2,000 foreigners, maistly o Genoese an Venetian origin.[13]

Ottomans

Laund forces: [a]:
50,000–80,000[14][15][16][17][18][19][20]
[b]:
100,000[6]–160,000[21][22]–200,000[3] to 300,000[23]

Naval forces:

Casualties and losses
  • 4,000 killed in tot (includin combatants an ceevilians)[28][29]
  • 30,000 enslaved or deportit[30]
Unknown but heavy[30][31]
  • a: Figurs accordin tae recent estimates an Ottoman archival data. The Ottoman Empire, for demographic reasons, would nae hae been able tae put mair nor 80,000 men intae the field at the time.[32]
  • b: Figurs accordin tae contemporaneous Wastren/Christian estimates[32]
  • c: Mair speceefically, the Byzantine Empire unner the Palaiologos dynasty
  • d: The Kinrick o Sicily mainly donatit ships an a few sodgers, it wisna offeecial houever, an wis duin bi several Cardinals.
  • e: The Venetians decidit tae mak a peace treaty wi the Ottomans in September 1451, acause thair Doge wis on guid terms already wi the Ottomans an thay did nae want tae ruin a relationship. They an aa did nae want the Ottomans tae interfere wi thair trade in the Black Sea an Mediterranean. The Venetians' efforts mainly includit giein Constantine XI ships an a tot o 800 sodgers in February 1453. The Venetians an aa promised that a lairger fleet would arrive tae save Constantine, this fleet would be full o ammuneetion, fresh sodgers an supplies. This fleet never came.
  • f: The Genoese captain Giovanni Giustiniani Longo wis woondit in battle, but managed tae escape, he died during the early days o Juin 1453.

The Faw o Constantinople (Greek: Ἃλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; Turkis: İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest o Istanbul) wis the captur o the caipital o the Byzantine Empire bi an invadin airmy o the Ottoman Empire on 29 Mey 1453. The Ottomans war commandit bi the then 21-year-auld Mehmed the Conqueror, the seivent sultan o the Ottoman Empire, wha defeatit an airmy commandit bi Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos. The conquest o Constantinople follaed a 53-day siege that haed begun on 6 Aprile 1453.

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. "1453'de İstanbul'u Fatih'e karşı savunan Osmanlı Şehzadesi kim?". blog.milliyet.com.tr. Retrieved 2016-02-13. 
  2. "Constantine XI (1449–1453) and the capture of Constantinople". 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Pertusi, Agostino, ed. (1976). La Caduta di Costantinopoli. Fondazione Lorenzo Valla: Verona. (An anthology of contemporary texts and documents on the fall of Constantinople; includes bibliographies and a detailed scholarly comment). 
  4. Nicol, Donald M. (1999). Bizans'ın Son Yüzyılları (1261–1453). İstanbul: Tarih Vakfı Yurt Yayınları. ISBN 975-333-096-0 s.418-420.
  5. Runciman, Steven (1965). The Conquest of Constantinople, 1453. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 85. ISBN 0-521-39832-0. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Merle Severy. Byzantine Empire. National Geographic. Vol. 164, No. 6 December 1983, p. 755?.
  7. 7.0 7.1 A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle ... , Spencer C. Tucker, 2009, p.343
  8. Byzantine Armies AD 1118–1461. p. 46. 
  9. The Late Byzantine Army: Arms and Society, 1204–1453. Mark C. Bartusis. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Kennedy Hickman. "Fall of Constantinople, 1453 – Byzantine-Ottoman Wars". About.com Education. Retrieved 2016-02-13. 
  11. "Osmanlı Araştırmaları – İstanbul'un fethinde 600 Türk askeri, Fatih'e karşı savaştı". 
  12. Nicolle, David (2000). Constantinople 1453: The end of Byzantium. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. p. 45. ISBN 1-84176-091-9. 
  13. "Fall of Constantinople, 1453". 
  14. J. E. Kaufmann, Hanna W. Kaufmann: The Medieval Fortress: Castles, Forts, and Walled Cities of the Middle Ages, Da Capo Press, 2004, ISBN 0-306-81358-0, page 101
  15. Ikram ul-Majeed Sehgal: Defence Journal (Issue 8), 2005, page 49
  16. Daniel Goffman: The Ottoman Empire and Early Modern Europe, Cambridge University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-521-45908-7, page 52
  17. James Patrick: Renaissance And Reformation, Marshall Cavendish, 2007, ISBN 0-7614-7650-4, page 618
  18. Norwich, John Julius (1997). A Short History of Byzantium. New York: Vintage Books. 
  19. Nicolle 2000.
  20. İnalcık, Halil (2008), Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Klasik Çağ (1300–1600)
  21. Chronicles of George Sphrantzes; Greek text is reported in A. Mai, Classicorum auctorum e Vaticanis codicibus editorum, tome IX, Romae 1837, pp 1–100
  22. The Destruction of the Greek Empire, Edwin Pears
  23. Leonardo di Chio, Letter,927B: "three hundred thousand and more".
  24. Michael Lee Lanning: The Battle 100: The Stories Behind History's Most Influential Battles, Sourcebooks, Inc., 2005, ISBN 1-4022-2475-3, pg 139–140
  25. Saul S. Friedman: A history of the Middle East, McFarland, 2006, ISBN 0-7864-5134-3, page 179
  26. Nicolle 2000, p. 44.
  27. Uyar, Mesut; Erickson, Edward J. (2009). A military history of the Ottomans: from Osman to Atatürk. Santa Barbara: Praeger. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-275-98876-0. 
  28. Nicolle, David (2007). The Fall of Constantinople: The Ottoman Conquest of Byzantium. New York: Osprey Publishing. pp. 237, 238. 
  29. Ruth Tenzel Fieldman, The Fall of Constantinople, Twenty-First Century Books, 2008, p. 99
  30. 30.0 30.1 "Part II: Fall of Constantinople". The American Legion's Burnpit. 
  31. "Nicol. Last Centuries of Byzantium". 
  32. 32.0 32.1 Steven Runciman: The Fall of Constantinople 1453, ISBN 1-107-60469-9, Cambridge University Press, 2012, page 215.

Coordinates: 41°01′00″N 28°58′37″E / 41.0167°N 28.9769°E / 41.0167; 28.9769