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Fajr-3 (1).jpg
A Fajr-3 in 2018.
Teep Rocket artillery
Place o oreegin Iran
Service history
In service 1996–present
Uised bi Iran
Wars 2006 Lebanon War
Production history
Manufacturer Shahid Bagheri Industrial Group[1]
Produced November 6, 1996
Wecht 15,000 kg (Seestem)
45 kg (HE Content)
90 kg (Warheid)
407 kg (Rocket)
Lenth 10.45 m (Launcher)[2]
5,200 mm (Rocket)
Weenth 2.54 m (Launcher)[2]
Hicht 3.34 m (Launcher)[2]
Diameter 240mm

Calibre 240 mm
Elevation 0 to 57 degrees[2]
Traverse 90 degrees left/100 degrees right[2]
Rate o fire 4–8 seconds[2]
12 rounds in 48 seconds (est)[3]
Muzzle velocity ?
Maximum firin range 43 km[2]

Ingine 280 hp, V-8 liquid-cooled, diesel engine[3]
Speed 60 km/h (road)
25 km/h (off-road)[3]

The Fajr-3 (rarely Fadjr-3) (Persie: فجر-۳‎) is an Iranian heivy 240 mm intermediate-range[4] multiple-launch artillery rocket (MLRS).[3] The Fajr-3 is a license-built copy, with slight modifications, of a North Korean MLRS called the M-1985.[5] The Fajr-3 wis introduced in the 1990s and haes since been exportit tae Sirie, Hamas and Hezbollah.

The Fajr-3 launcher fires twelve 5.2 meter long, 240 millimeter-calibre Fajr-3 artillery rockets, with an estimatit range of 43 kilometres, weighing 407 kilograms each and carrying 45-kilogram HE warheids.[3] Fajr means 'dawn' in Arabic.

Histerie[eedit | eedit soorce]

The Fajr-3 is a copy of the North Korean M-1985 (seen here.)

During the Iran–Iraq War, around a dozen North Korean M-1985 MLRS seestems were exportit tae Iran.[6] The North Korean M-1985 wis derivit frae Soviet Katyushas, and so the Fajr-3 is sometimes considerit a Katyusha too.[7] With Cheenese an North Korean assistance, Iran's state-run Shahid Bagheri Industries started tae domestically develop the seestem in Mairch 1990[8][9] under license.[5] Analysts in Abu Dhabi learnit about the development less than a month later and describit it as "ane of the maist important new wappens" unner development in Iran.[10] The development programme for the Fajr-3 might haeve been run in conjunction with the development of the Oghab.[5]

Fajr-3 launch.

The first Fajr-3s were produced either in 1990 or on November 6, 1996,[11] (sources differ) and the seestem entered service that year.[3] Early versions of the Fajr-3 apparently haed reduced range and it wis nae until December 1998 that Iran testit a rocket with the full 43 km range.[12] Fajr-3 rockets are known tae haeve still been in production in 2006.[13]

Description[eedit | eedit soorce]

An Iranian Fajr-3 in 2001, on a Mercedes-Benz 2624 series chassis.

The Fajr-3 launcher haes twelve tubes in two groups of six.[2] The seestem wis first installed on a Mercedes-Benz 2624 series chassis, haes since been seen with Japanese Isuzu chassis, and is currently uised on Mercedes-Benz 2631 chassis.[14] Apairt frae the chassis differences, which are trivial, there are nae Fajr-3 variants.[3] The launcher is unarmourot, weighs 15 metric tons, and haes nae fire-control seestem.[3] The rocket is solit fueled[5] and haes a fragmentation heich explosive warheid.[3] A complete Fajr-3 seestem is manned by a crew of five and awso includes ane dedicatit resupply vehicle with a crane.[3] A reload is estimatit tae take 12-15 minutes.[3]

References[eedit | eedit soorce]

  1. Shahid Hemmat Industrial Group. Archived 2008-06-27 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on May 13, 2008.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Fajr-3 & Fajr-5 brochure. Retrieved on May 13, 2008.
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 "Worldwide Equipment Guide 2015: Ground Systems" (PDF). 2015. p. 412–413. 
  4. Johnson, David E., Hard Fighting: Israel in Lebanon and Gaza. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2011. p. 51. https://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG1085.html. Also available in print form.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Iran's Ballistic Missile Capabilities: A Net Assessment. The International Institute for Strategic Studies. 2010.
  6. Iran Profile: Missile Capabilities—Long-Range Artillery Rocket Programs at NTI
  7. Christopher Harmer (August 16, 2012). "Threat and Response: Israeli Missile Defense" (PDF). Institute for the Study of War. 
  8. "Military Briefing on Hezbollah's Missile Capabilities: Examining the Fajr, Zelzal". Vital Perspective. 2006. Retrieved 2006-08-02. In the late 1980s, the North Korean-produced 240 mm M-1985 multiple rocket launcher (MRL) wis exportit tae Iran and subsequently produced unner license (with minor changes) by Shahid Bagheri Industries as the Fajr-3 (a.k.a., Fadjr-3). 
  9. FADJR-3. Archived 2008-05-10 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on May 12, 2008
  10. "JPRS Report, Arms Control". 3 May 1990. 
  11. Missile Chronology, 1996. Archived 2010-03-08 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on May 12, 2008.
  12. Anthony H. Cordesman, with assistance from G. Ryan Faith (April 2003) The Military Balance in the Middle East: An Analytic Overview: Military Expenditures and Arms Transfers, Major Arms by Country and Zone, and Qualitative Trends
  13. Major Brian H. Cunningham (2009). "Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps: Instability in the Middle East" (PDF). 
  14. "Fadjr-3 Fajr-3 RAAD 240mm multiple rocket launcher seestem technical data sheet specifications". www.armyrecognition.com.